Precipitation as a factor triggering landslide activity in the Kamień massif (Beskid Niski Mts, Western Carpathians)

Tomasz Papciak, Ireneusz Malik, Kazimierz Krzemień, Małgorzata Wistuba, Elżbieta Gorczyca, Dominika Wrońska-Wałach, Mateusz Sobucki

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/7013

Abstract


On the landslide slope in the Beskid Niski Mts (Western Carpathians) 48 silver firs were cored for dendrochronological samples. Tree-ring widths were measured for the upslope and downslope sides of each stem. Events of landslide activity were dated using the method of the eccentricity index. The tree-ring record of landsliding was compared with the occurrence of precipitation in the study area. The nature of the relation between precipitation and landsliding is complex. We have found a statistically significant correlation between landsliding and the number of days with 24-hour precipitation totals above 20 mm and high 3-, 5-, and 10-day precipitation totals during winter half-years. Thus landsliding in the Kamień massif is triggered mainly by high precipitation totals in the preceding winter period. No such relation was found for annual precipitation totals and different types of precipitation totals in the summer period. Single landsliding events related to high summer precipitation totals were found, but the correlation is not statistically significant. In addition some landsliding events are 1–2 years lagged after the occurrence of high long-term precipitation totals. It seems that the strongest landsliding events resulted from sequences of wet summer, wet winter and once again wet summer seasons directly following one another.

Keywords


landslide, precipitation, dendrogeomorphology, Beskid Niski Mts

Full Text:

PDF

References


BRAMM R.R., WEISS E.E.J., BURROUGH P.A., 1987, Spatial and temporal analysis of mass movement using dendrochronology. Catena, 9: 573–584.

COROMINAS J., MOYA J., 2010, Contribution of dendrochronology to the determination of magnitude-frequency relationships for landslides. Geomorphology, 124: 137–149.

DANEK M., 2007, The influence of industry on Scots pine stands in the south-eastern part of the Silesia–Kraków Upland (Poland) on the basis of dendrochronological analysis. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 185: 265–277.

ELLING W., DITTMAR CH., PFAFFELMOSER K., ROTZER T., 2009, Dendroecological assessment of the complex causes of decline and recovery of the growth of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Southern Germany. Forest Ecology and Management, 25: 1175–1187.

GERLACH T., POKORNY J., WOLNIK R., 1958, Osuwisko w Lipowicy. Przegląd Geograficzny 30: 685–698.

GIL E., DŁUGOSZ M., 2006, Threshold values of rainfalls triggering selected deep-seated landslides in the Polish flysch Carpathians. Studia Geomorphologica Carpatho-Balcanica, 40: 21–43.

GIL E., SŁUPIK J., 1972, Hydroclimatic conditions of slope wash during snowmelt in the Flysch Carpathians. Symposium International de Geomorphologie, Université de Liège, 67: 75–90.

GIL E., ZABUSKI L., MROZEK T., 2009, Hydrometeorological conditions and their relation to landslide processes in the Polish flysch Carpathians (an example of Szymbark area). Studia Geomorphologica Carpatho-Balcanica, 43: 127–143.

GORCZYCA E., 2008, Rola płytkich ruchów osuwiskowych w kształtowaniu stoków fliszowych (na przykładzie Beskidu Wyspowego i Bieszczadów). Przegląd Geograficzny, 80: 105–126.

HUNGR O., LEROUEIL S., PICARELLI L., 2014, The Varnes classification of landslide types, an update. Landslides, 11: 167–194.

KRĄPIEC M., DANEK M., GIL E., KŁUSEK M., RĄCZKOWSKI W., ZABUSKI L., 2008, Monitoring dendrochronologiczny osuwisk w Beskidzie Niskim. Prace Komisji Paleogeografii Czwartorzędu Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności, 6: 173–184.

KRĄPIEC M., MARGIELEWSKI W., 2000, Analiza dendrogeomorfologiczna ruchów masowych na obszarze polskich Karpat fliszowych. Zeszyty naukowe AGH, Geologia, 26: 141–171.

MALIK I., DANEK M., MARCHWIŃSKA-WYRWAŁ E., DANEK T., WISTUBA M., KRĄPIEC M. 2012, Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) growth suppressions and adverse human health effect due to air pollution in Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), southern Poland. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 223: 3345–3364.

MALIK I., POLOWY M., KRZEMIEŃ K., WISTUBA M., GORCZYCA E., PAPCIAK T., WROŃSKA-WAŁACH D., ABRAMOWICZ A., SOBUCKI M., ZIELONKA T., in press, Possibility to distinguish treering reductions caused by landsliding and by air pollution (example from Western Carpathians). Tree Rings in Archeology, Climatology and Ecology.

MALIK I., WISTUBA M., 2012, Dendrochronological methods for reconstructing mass movements – An example of landslide activity analysis using tree-ring eccentricity. Geochronometria, 39: 180–196.

MARGIELEWSKI W., ŚWIĘCHOWICZ J., STARKEL L., ŁAJCZAK A., PIETRZAK M., 2008, Współczesna ewolucja rzeźby Karpat fliszowych. [in:] Starkel L. (ed.), Współczesne przemiany rzeźby Polski, Instytut Geografii i Gospodarki Przestrzennej UJ, Kraków: 57–133.

MIGOŃ P., KACPRZAK A., MALIK I., KASPRZAK M., OWCZAREK P., WISTUBA M., PÁNEK T., 2014, Geomorphological, pedological and dendrochronological signatures of a relict landslide terrain, Mt Garbatka (Kamienne Mts), SW Poland. Geomorphology 219: 213–231.

OPAŁA M., MENDECKI M., 2014, An attempt to dendroclimatic reconstruction of winter temperature based on multispecies tree-ring widths and extreme years chronologies (example of Upper Silesia, Southern Poland). Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 115: 73–89.

PRUCHNICKI J., 1987, Metody opracowań klimatologicznych. PWN, Warszawa.

RĄCZKOWSKI W., 2007, Landslide hazard in the Polish Flysch Carpathians. Studia Geomorphologica Carpatho-Balcanica, 41: 61–75.

SCHWEINGRUBER F.H., KONTIC R., NIEDERER M., NIPPEL C.A., WINKLER-SEIFERT A., 1985, Diagnosis and distribution of conifer decay in the Swiss Rhone Valley a dendrochronological study. [in:] Turner H., Tranquillini W. (eds.), Establishment and tending of subalpine forest, Swiss Federal Institute of Forestry Research, Berno: 189–192.

STARKEL L., 1976, The role of extreme (catastrophic) meteorological events in contemporary evolution of slopes. [in:] Derbyshire E. (ed.), Geomorphology and Climate, J. Viley, Chichester: 203–246.

STARKEL L., 1986, Rola zjawisk ekstremalnych i procesów sekularnych w erozji gleby (na przykładzie T. Papciak et al. Precipitation as a factor triggering landslide activity…

fliszowych Karpat). Czasopismo Geograficzne, 57: 203–213.

STARKEL L., 1996, Geomorphic role of extreme rainfalls in the Polish Carpathians. Studia Geomorphologica Carpatho-Balcanica, 30: 21–38.

STARKEL L., 2011, Złożoność czasowa i przestrzenna opadów ekstremalnych – ich efekty geomorfologiczne i drogi przeciwdziałania im. Landform Analysis, 15: 65–80.

STARKEL L., 2014, O niektórych prawidłowościach rozwoju rzeźby gór i ich przedpoli. Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN, Wydawnictwo Akademickie “Sedno”, Warszawa: 71–115.

TUOMENVIRTA H., 2001, Homogeneity adjustments of temperature and precipitation series – Finnish and Nordic data. International Journal of Climatollogy, 121: 495–506.

WISTUBA M., MALIK I., GÄRTNER H., KOJS P., OWCZAREK P., 2013, Application of eccentric growth of tree-rings as a tool for landslide analyses (an example of Picea abies Karst. in the Carpathian and Sudeten Mountains – Central Europe). Catena, 111: 41–55.

ZIĘTARA T., 1968, Rola gwałtownych ulew i powodzi w modelowaniu rzeźby Beskidów. Prace Geograficzne, 60.








ISSN 2080-7686 (print)
ISSN 2300-8490 (online)

 

 

Partnerzy platformy czasopism