Dynamics of regional disparities in Slovakia in 2001 and 2011

Anton Michálek, Peter Podolák, Michala Sládeková Madajová

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bog-2018-0033


This paper is focused on the presentation of developmental tendencies of regional disparities in Slovakia in 2001 and 2011 from the point of view of selected and relevant socio-economic and demographic indicators. To test the divergence hypothesis of the regional disparities at a district level, these are evaluated by using multidimensional analysis of 14 indicators. The overall level and development of regional disparities are measured with the help of the methods of descriptive statistics and multi-criteria assessments (integrated index). The results confirm the hypothesis of divergence development as the basic tendency of regional development in Slovakia. The presented research has documented evident time shortening of significant changes in regions drifting towards divergent development. Rapid and, up to now, unprecedented changes (employment and wages growth, enterprise development, foreign investments increase, etc.), are evident and reflected in the majority of indicators – however, with different impacts on the regional level.


regional disparities, socio-economic indicators, integrated index, divergence hypothesis

Full Text:



Bachtler, J., Downes, R., Hughes, E.H. and MacQuarrie, J., 1999: Regional Development and Policy in the Transition Countries. In: Regional and Industrial Policy Research Paper 36. European Policies Research Centre. Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Bishop, J.A., Formby, J.P. and Thistle, P. D., 1994: Convergence and Divergence of Regional Income Distributions and Welfare. In: The Review of Economics and Statistics, 76(2): 228-235.

Boldrin, M. and Canova, F., 2001: Inequalities and Convergence in Europe´s Regions. Reconsidering European Regional Policies. In: Economic Policy, 32(6): 205-253.

Canaleta, C.G., Arzoz, P.P. and Garate, M.R., 2004: Regional Economic Disparities and Decentralisation. In: Urban Studies, 41(1): 71-94.

Cibulskiene, D. and Butkus, M., 2007: The Influence of Cumulative Causation Process on Regional Divergence in Lithuania during 1995-2003. In: Jahrbuch fur Regionalwissenschaft, 27(1): 59-87.

Dlugosz, Z. and Kurek, S., 2009: Population Ageing and its Predictions for 2030 in the Małopolskie Voivodship Compared to Poland and Europe. In: Moravian Geographical Reports, 17(1): 2-18.

Dunford, M., 2009: Regional Inequalities”. In: R.Kitchin., N.Thrift., eds. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 9: 236-245.

Dunford, M., Smith, A., 2000: Catching Up or Falling Behind? Economic Performance and Regional Trajectories in the New Eurpe. In: Economic Geography, 76 (2): 169-195.

European Parliament, 2007: Regional Disparities and Cohesion. What Strategies for the Future. Study. Brussel.

Egger, P., Huber, P. and Pfaffermayr, M., 2005: A Note on Export Openness and Regional Wage Disparity in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Annals of Regional Science, 39(1): 63-71.

Ezcurra, R., Pascual, P. and Rapu, M. 2007: The Dynamics of Regional Disparities in Central and Eastern Europe during Transition. In: European Planning Studies, 15(10): 1397-1421.

Gaki, E, Angelis, V., Dimaki, K. and Koufodontis, N.I., 2012: Economic Crisis and Regional Disparities. Paper provided by European Regional Science Association in its Series ERSA Conference Papers with Number ERSA12p1158. Available at: http://www-sre.wu.ac.at/ersa/ersaconfs/ersa12/e120821aFinal01167.pdf

Heidenreich, M., 2003: Regional Inequalities in the Enlarged Europe. In: Journal of European Social Policy, 13(4): 313-333.

Hurbánek, P., 2008: Vývoj priestorovej polarizácie na regionálnej úrovni na Slovensku v rokoch 1996 – 2008 (Development of Spatial Polarisation at Regional Scale in Slovakia in 1996 – 2008 – in Slovak). In: Geographia Cassoviensis, 2(1): 53-58.

Ira, V., Falťan, L., Pašiak, J. and Gajdoš, P., 2005: Podoby regionálnych odlišností na Slovensku (Forms of regional differences in Slovakia – in Slovak). Sociologický ústav SAV, Bratislava, Formát Pezinok, 381p.

Korec, P., 2005: Regionálny rozvoj Slovenska v rokoch 1989-2004 (Regional development of Slovakia 1989-2004 – in Slovak). Geografika Bratislava, 227p.

Korec, P., 2009: Regionálna štruktúra Slovenskej republiky a ľudský kapitál jej regiónov (The regional structure of the Slovak Republic and the human capital of its regions – in Slovak). In: Bleha, B., ed., Populačný vývoj Slovenska na prelome tisícročí, kontinuita či nová éra? Geografika, Bratislava: 257-279.

Lipshitz, G., 1986: Divergence or Convergence in Regional Inequality-Consumption Variables versus Policy Variables: The Israeli Case. Geografiska Annaler. In: Series B, Human Geography, 68(1): 13-20.

Madajová, M., Michálek, A. and Podolák, P., 2014: Úroveň regionálnych disparít na Slovensku a jej zmena v období rokov 2001-2011 (The level of regional disparities in Slovakia and its changes in 2001-2011 in Slovak). In: Regionálne a priestorové disparity na Slovensku, ich vývoj v ostatnom desaťročí, súčasný stav a konzekvencie. Bratislava, Geografický ústav SAV, 127-152.

Matlovič, R. and Matlovičová, K., 2011: Regionálne disparity a ich riešenie na Slovensku v rozličných kontextoch (Regional disparities and their solution in Slovakia in the various contexts – in Slovak). In: Acta Facultatis Studiorum Humanitatis et Naturae Universitatis Prešoviensis, Prírodné vedy, Folia Geographica, 18: 8-89.

McKay, A., 2002: Defining and Measuring Inequality. London. Economist Resource Centre.

Michálek, A. and Podolák, P., 2001: Transformation of the Society in Slovakia and its effect on Demographic Behaviour. In: European Spatial Research and Policy, 8(2): 23-37.

Michálek, A. and Podolák, P. 2013: Theoretical framework for the selection of social indicators characterising regional disparities. In: Revue Roumaine de Géographie, 57(2): 119-128.

Noteworthy Statistics, 2013: Regional Disparities in GDP per Capita in the EU after the Financial Crisis. (LE) London Economics Publication Working Papers and Economic Briefs. Available at: http://londoneconomics.co.uk/blog/publication/ regional-disparities-in-gdp-per-capita-in-the-eu-after-the-financial-crisis/, DoA: 2.2.2015.

Paas, T. and Schlitte, F., 2006: Regional Income Disparities: Convergence or Divergence within the EU-25? HWWA Discussion Paper, 355 Hamburgisches Welt-Wirtschafts-Archiv (HWWA). Hamburg. Germany.

Petrakos, G., 2001: Patterns of regional inequality in transition economies. In: European Planning Studies, 9: 359-383.

Podolák, P., 1995: Interregional Migration Pattern in Slovakia – Efficiency Analysis and Demographic Consequences. In: Geoforum, 26: 65-74.

Podolák, P. and Michálek, A., 2008: Profile of the Present Slovak Society and its Regional Differences. In: Social Indicators Research, 87(1): 157-167.

Rajčáková, E. and Švecová, A., 2009: Regionálne disparity na Slovensku (Regional disparities in Slovakia – in Slovak). In: Geographia Cassoviensis, 3(2): 142-149.

Smith, A., 1998: Reconstructing the Regional Economy: Industrial Transformation and Regional Development in Slovakia. Cheltenham. Edward Elgar.

Stock, J.H. and Watson, M.W., 1989: New Indexes of Coincident and Leading Economic Indicators. In: Blanchard, O., J., and Fischer, S. (eds). Macroeconomics Annual 1989, 4.

National Bureau of Economy, 2007: Development and Regional Disparities – Testing the Williamson Curve Hypothesis in the European Union. In: Focus on European Economic Integration, 2: 100-121.

Veselovská, Z., 2015: Sociálne nerovnosti a možnosti ich merania (Social Inequalities and Possibilities of Their Measurements – in Slovak). In: Geographia Cassoviensis, 9(1): 69-79.

Wishlade, F. and Youill, D., 1997: Measuring Disparities for Area Designation Purposes: Issues for the European Union. Regional and Industrial Policy Research Paper 24. Glasgow, University of Strathclyde.

Ward, T., 2002: Needs of Objective 1 Regions in the Accession Countries and in Existing EU15 Member States in Areas Eligible for Structural Funds. Final Report. Alphametrics Ltd in Collaboration with Applica sprl. Paris (France), Bruxelles (Belgium).

Williamson, J. G., 1965: Regional inequalities and the process of national development. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 13.

Print ISSN: 1732-4254
Online ISSN: 2083-8298

Partnerzy platformy czasopism