Analysing the tourism activity of seniors by applying the method of participant observation

Zbigniew Głąbiński

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bog-2016-0024

Abstract


Issues concerning seniors' participation in tourism have been of increasing interest to many researchers. This results from their dynamic growth in the world's most developed societies which, together with cultural changes, contributes to greater participation in various forms of tourism. So far, this phenomenon has been examined by applying quantitative methods, surveys being the most common. Some researchers state that qualitative methods may also be of great use in the analysis of tourist behaviour. Therefore, this article aims at presenting the methodological conditions of participant observation as a qualitative method for analysing such behaviour. Its use is exemplified by research findings on Polish seniors conducted among participants of package tours to various European countries. It presents observations concerning their behaviour in both time and space. Special attention was paid to seniors' motives and the forms of tourism those motives led to. 

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alejziak, W., 2008: Metodologia badań w turystyce (Methodology of sudies in tourism – in Polish). In: Winiarski, R. editor, Turystyka w naukach humanistycznych (Tourism in the Humanities – in Polish), Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN pp. 140-164.

Alejziak, W., 2012: Determinanty i zróżnicowanie społeczne aktywności turystycznej (Determinants and social diversity in tourism activity – in Polish). In: Studia i Monografie, Vol. 56, Kraków: AWF, pp. 84-142.

Angrosino, M.V. and Rosenberg, J., 2011: Observations on Observation: Continuities and Challenges. In: Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. editors, Handbook of qualitative research, Los Angles/London/New Delhi/Singapore/Washington DC: Sage Publications, Inc., pp. 467-478.

Babbie, E., 2007: Badania społeczne w praktyce (The practice of Social Research - in Polish), Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Bąk, I., 2013: Statystyczna analiza aktywności turystycznej seniorów w Polsce (Statistical analysis of tourism activity of senior citizens in Poland – in Polish), Szczecin: Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny.

Blichfeldt, B.S., 2008: What to do on our Holiday: the Case of in Situ Decision-Making. In: Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 287-305.

Bombol, M. and Słaby, T., 2011: Konsument 55+ wyzwaniem dla rynku (The 55+ consumer as market challenge – in Polish), Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza SGH.

Bowen, D., 2002: Research through Participant Observation in Tourism: a Creative Solution to the Measurement of Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction among Tourists. In: Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 41, pp. 4-14.

Cai, L., Schwartz, Z. and Cohen, E., 2001: Senior Tourist in the Holy Land. In: Journal of Teaching in Travel and Tourism, Vol. 1 (4), pp.19-33.

Chojnicki, Z., 1999: Podstawy metodologiczne i teoretyczne geografii (Methodological and theoretical principles of geography – in Polish), Poznań: Bogucki. Wydawnictwo Naukowe.

Chomczyński, P., 2006: Wybrane problemy etyczne w badaniach. Obserwacja uczestnicząca ukryta (Selected ethical problems in research: covert participant observation – in Polish). In: Przegląd socjologii jakościowej, T. II, No. 1, pp. 68-87. http://przegladsocjologiijakosciowej.org/Volume2/PSJ_2_1_Chomczynski.pdf

Chybalski, F. and Matejun, M., 2013: Organizacja jako przedmiot badań – od zbierania danych do analizy wyników (An organization as a subject of research - from data collection to analysis of results – in Polish). In: Adamik, A. editor, Nauka o organizacji. Ujęcie dynamiczne, Warszawa: Oficyna Wolters Kluwer Business, pp. 93-151.

Dann, G., 2001: Targeting Seniors the Language of Tourism. In: Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, Vol. 8 (3/4), pp. 5-35.

Denzin, N., 1970: The Research Act in Sociology, London: Buttterworth.

Glaser, B. and Strauss, A., 1999: The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research, London: New Brunswick.

Glover, P. and Prideaux, B., 2009: Implication of population ageing for the development of tourism products and destinations. In: Journal of Vacation Marketing, No. 15.1, pp. 25-37.

Głąbiński, Z., 2014: Wybrane aspekty aktywności turystycznej seniorów w świetle badań jakościowych metodą zogniskowanych wywiadów grupowych (Selected aspects of the tourism activity of seniors in the light of qualitative research through applying focus group interviews – in Polish). In: Walas, B. and Sobczuk, J., editors, Ewolucja podaży i popytu w turystyce, Sucha Beskidzka: Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Turystyki i Ekologii, pp. 69-94.

Głąbiński, Z., 2015: The application of social survey methods in analysing the tourist activity of seniors. In: Szymańska, D. and Rogatka, K. editors, Bulletin of Geography. Socio–economic Series, Toruń: Nicolaus Copernicus University Press, No. 27, pp. 51–65. DOI: http://www.bulletinofgeography.umk.pl/27_2015/04_Glabinski.pdf

Hammersley, M. and Atkinson P., 2000: Metody badań terenowych (Ethnography: Principles in Practice – in Polish), Poznań: Wydawnictwo Zysk i S-ka.

Hsu, C., Cai, L. and Wong, K., 2007: A model of senior tourism motivation – Anecdotes from Beijing and Shanghai. In: Tourism Management, No. 28, pp. 1262-1273.

Hung, K. and Petrick, J.F., 2009: How do we get Baby Boomers and Future Seniors on motor coaches? In: Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14. No. 5, pp. 665-675.

Hunter-Jones, P. and Blackburn, A., 2007: Understanding the Relationship Between Holiday Taking and Self-assessed Health: an Exploratory Study of Senior Tourism. In: International Journal of Consumer Research, No. 31, pp. 509-516. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2007.00607.x

Karkowska, M., 2006: Analiza i interpretacja danych o charakterze jakościowym. (Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data – in Polish). In: Rocznik Edukacji Alternatywnej, No. 1 (05), pp. 9-16.

Lew, A. and McKercher, B., 2006: Modeling Tourist Movements: a Local Destination Analysis. In: Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 403-423. http://www2.nau.edu/~alew/publications/Lew-McKercher-Modeling-Local-Movmt.pdf

Mackay, K.J. and Smith, M.C., 2006: Destination advertising: Age and Format Effects on Memory. In: Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 33, No 1, pp. 7-24.

Mackellar, J., 2013: Participant observation at events: theory, practice and potential. In: Journal of Event and Festival Management. Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 56-65. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17582951311307511

Mansvelt, J., 1997: Working at leisure: critical geographies of aging. In: Area, Vol. 29.4, pp. 289-298.

McMorran, C., 2010: Using work as participant observation to study tourism. In: Hall, M. editor, Fieldwork in Tourism. Methods, issues and reflections, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 220-231.

Middleton, V.T.C., 1996: Marketing w turystyce. (Marketing in Travel and Tourism – in Polish), Warszawa: PARP.

Miszewski, K., 2007: Kiedy badacz jest tajnym agentem. O postrzeganiu niejawnej obserwacji uczestniczącej jako etycznie problematycznej, metodach badań ilościowych, zakulisowych wymiarach życia społecznego i ich związku ze wszystkim tym, o czym przed chwilą (When a researcher becomes a secret agent: the perception of covert participant observation as ethically problematic; quantitative research methods; hidden dimensions of social life and their relationship with everything that has just happened – in Polish). In: Przegląd Socjologii Jakościowej. T.III, Vol. 2, pp. 33-62. http://przegladsocjologiijakosciowej.org/Volume4/PSJ_3_2_Miszewski.pdf

Nalaskowski, Ł., 1999: Grupa „turystyczna” w świetle obserwacji uczestniczącej (Tourist group in the light of participant observation – in Polish) In: Przegląd Bydgoski, R. 10, pp. 65-76.

Nimrod, G., 2008: Retirement and tourism: themes in Retirees’ Narratives. In: Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 35, No 4, pp. 859-878. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2008. 06.001

Nimrod, G. and Rotem, A., 2010: Between Relaxation and Excitement: Activities and Benefits Gained in Retirees’ Tourism. In: International Journal of Tourism Research, No. 12, pp. 65–78. DOI: 10.1002/jtr.739

Patton, M.Q., 1987: How to use Qualitative Methods in Evaluation? Newbury Park: Sage Publications, Ch. 4, pp. 70-106.

Pearce, D.G., 1988: Tourist time-budget. In: Annals of Tourism Research, 15(1), pp. 106-121.

Prayag, G., 2012: Senior Travelers’ Motivations and Future Behavioral Intentions: the case of Nice. In: Journal of Travel, Tourism Marketing, No. 29:7, pp. 665-681. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10548408.2012.720153?journalCode=wttm20

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2012.720153

Prognoza ludności na lata 2008–2035. 2009. (Demographic Projection for 2008-2035 - in Polish). Central Statistical Office, pp. 204, 219, available at: http://stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/L_prognoza_ludnosci_na_lata2008_2035.pdf, DoA 21.09.2015.

Raport „ZOOM na Uniwersytety Trzeciego Wieku” (“ZOOM at the University of the Third Age” report – in Polish), available at: http://zoomnautw.pl DoA 20.09.2015.

Sangpikul, A. 2008: A factor-cluster analysis of tourist motivations: a case of U.S. senior travelers. In: Tourism - An International Interdisciplinary Journal. Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 23-40.

Sedgley, D., Pritchard, A. and Morgan, N., 2006: Understanding older women’s leisure: the value of biographical research methods. In: Tourism. Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 43-51.

Silverman D., 2007: Interpretacja danych jakościowych (Interpreting qualitative data – in Polish), Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Śniadek, J. and Zajadacz, A., 2010: Senior citizens and their leisure activity: understanding leisure behaviour of elderly people in Poland. In: Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 193-204.

Walle, A. H., 1997: Quantative versus qualitative tourism research. In: Annals of Tourism Research. Vol. 24, No. 3, p. 524-536.

Winiarski, R. and Zdebski, J. 2008: Psychologia turystyki (Tourism psychology – in Polish), Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne.

Wodejko, S., 1998: Ekonomiczne zagadnienia turystyki (Economic problems of tourism – in Polish), Warszawa: Wyższa Szkoła Handlu i Prawa.








Print ISSN: 1732-4254
Online ISSN: 2083-8298

Partnerzy platformy czasopism