Creative Clusters in Visegrad Countries: Factors Conditioning Cluster Establishment and Development

Magdalena Bialic-Davendra, Pavel Bednář, Lukáš Danko, Jana Matošková



Since the accession of the Visegrad Group of countries (V4) to the European Union, the importance of clusters has increased. With growing global competitiveness and EU 12 trends, a gradual awareness of creative industries is observed in V4 countries. Therefore, this article analyses creative clusters and factors conditioning their establishment and development. On the basis of a literature review and a questionnaire survey, a mapping of creative clusters was conducted. In addition, catalysts, main motives and key factors in the process of their establishment were identified, as were the activities and factors hampering their development. The scheme of cluster development is presented as the outcome of the qualitative analysis, along with a comparison to findings of other studies. Research findings show that trust building and administrative obstacles are among the main barriers, especially for design clusters and cultural clusters. 

Full Text:



Allan, G., 2003: A Critique of Using Grounded Theory as a Research Method. In: Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp.1-10.

Bednář, P., Danko, L. and Grebeníček, P., 2013: Towards Creative Clusters: Mapping and Development of Creative Industries in Slovakia. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Geography and Geology, pp. 260-265.

Bialic-Davendra, M., Pavelková D. and Břusková, P., 2013: Cluster Policy and Supporting Tools Consistent with Cluster’s Stage of Development - Good Practice Examples as an Inspiration for the Czech Cluster Policy Advancement. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Scientific Conference Finance and the Performance of Firms in Science, Education, and Practice, Zlin, pp. 96-112.

Bialic-Davendra, M., Pavelková, D. and Vejmělková, E., 2014: The Clusters Phenomenon in the Selected Central European Countries. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Bilton, Ch. and Cummings, S., 2010: Creative Strategy: Reconnecting Business and Innovation. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.

Boggs, J., 2009: Cultural Industries and the Creative Economy – Vague but Useful Concepts. In: Geography Compass, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp. 1483-1498. DOI:

Boix, R., Hervás-Oliver, J. and De Miguel-Molina, B., 2014: Micro-Geographies of Creative Industries Clusters in Europe: from Hot Spots to Assemblages. In: Papers in Regional Science, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. DOI:

Caniëls, M., De Stobbeleir, K. and De Clippeleer, I., 2014: The Antecedents of Creativity Revisited: A Process Perspective. In: Creativity and Innovation Management, Volume 23, Issue 2, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 96-110. DOI:

Caves, R., 2003: Contracts Between Art and Commerce. In: Journal of Economic Perspectives, Volume 17, Issue 2, AEA, pp. 73-83. DOI:

Champion, K., 2010: Hobson’s Choice? Constraints On Accessing Spaces Of Creative Production. In: Creative Industries Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 11-28. DOI:

Chapain, C. and Comunian, R., 2010: Enabling and Inhibiting the Creative Economy: The Role of the Local and Regional Dimensions in England. In: Regional Studies, Volume 44, Issue 6, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 717-734. DOI:

Chapain, C. and De Propris, L., 2009: Drivers and Processes of Creative Industries in Cities and Regions. In: Creative Industries Journal, Volume 2, Issue 1, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 9-18. DOI:

Chell, E., 1998: Critical Incident Technique, In: Qualitative methods and analysis in organizational research: A practical guide, edited by Symon, G. and Cassell, C. London: Sage.

Coetzer, A. and Redmond, J., 2011: Decision Making Regarding Employee Access to Training and Development in Medium-sized Enterprises: A Proposed Study Employing the Critical Incident Technique. In: Small Enterprise Research, Volume 18, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 119-129.

Cohendet, P., Grandadam, D. and Simon, L., 2010: The Anatomy of the Creative City. In: Industry and Innovation, Volume 17, Issue 1, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 91-111. DOI:

Da Cunha, I. and Selada, C., 2009: Creative Urban Regeneration: The Case of Innovation Hubs. In: Int. Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, Inderscience Ltd, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp. 371-386. DOI:

Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). 1998: Creative Industries Mapping Document. Available from:, DoA: 18 May 2015

Derudder, B. and Taylor, P., 2012: World City Network. Project 97. Available from:, DoA: 20 May 2015.

Desrochers, P. and Leppälä, S., 2011: Creative Cities and Regions: The Case for Local Economic Diversity. In: Creativity and Innovation Management, Volume 20, Issue 1, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 59-69. DOI:

Eikhof, D. and Haunschild, A., 2006: Lifestyle Meets Market: Bohemian Entrepreneurs in Creative Industries. In: Creativity and Innovation Management, Volume 15, Issue 3, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 234-241. DOI:

Faris, S., 2013: How Poland Became Europe’s Most Dynamic Economy. Bloomberg Businessweek”. Global Economics. 27.11.2013. Available from:, DoA: 28 May 2015.

Florida, R., 2002: The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life, New York: Basic Books.

Foord, J., 2008: Strategies for Creative Industries: an International Review. In: Creative Industries Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 91-113. DOI:

Glaser, B. and Strauss, A., 1967: The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine.

Gwee, J., 2009: Innovation and the Creative Industries Cluster: A Case Study of Singapore’s Creative Industries. In: Innovation: management, policy & practice, Volume 11, Issue 2, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 240-252. DOI:

Harney, S., 2010: Unfinished Business: Labour, Management, and the Creative Industries. In: Cultural Studies, Volume 24, Issue 3, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 431-444. DOI:

Heebels, B. van Aalst, I., 2010: Creative Clusters in Berlin: Entrepreneurship and the Quality of Place in Prenzlauer Berg and Kreutzberg. In: Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, Volume 92, Issue 4, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 347-363. DOI:

Huggins, R. and Johnston, A., 2009: Knowledge Networks in an Uncompetitive Region: SME Innovation and Growth. In: Growth and Change, Volume 40, Issue 2, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 227-259. DOI:

INTELI, 2011: Creative-based Strategies in Small and Medium-sized Cities: Guidelines for Local Authorities. Available from:, DoA: 2 June 2015.

Jaurová, Z., 2013a: V4 Creative Incubators: Guide to places and spaces of creative incubation in Central Europe. Available from:, DoA: 5 June 2015.

Jaurová, Z., Jenčíková, K., Geist, R. and Salajová, S., 2013b: Správa o Stave a Potenciáli Kreatívneho Priemyslu na Slovensku (Report on the status and potential of creative industries in Slovakia - in Slovak), Bratislava: Neulogy.

Jeffcutt, P., Pick, J. and Protherough, R., 2000: Culture and Industry: Exploring the Debate. In: Studies in Cultures, Organizations and Societies, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 129-143. DOI:

Jones, M. and Alony, I. 2011: Guiding the use of Grounded Theory in Doctoral studies – an example from the Australian film industry. In: International Journal of Doctoral Studies, Volume 6, pp. 95-114.

Jones, P., Comfort, D., Eastwood, I. and Hillier, D., 2004: Creative Industries: Economic Contributions, Management Challenges and Support Initiatives. In: Management Research News, Volume 27, Issue 12, Emerald Ltd, pp. 134-145. DOI:

Kim, M. S., 2013: Qualitative Study on Knowledge Sharing by University Hospital Medical Doctors – Focusing on Grounded Theory. In: International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology, Volume 5, Issue 5, Sersc Ltd, pp. 93-100.

Kind, S. and Meier zu Köcker, G., 2012: Developing Successful Creative and Cultural Clusters, Institute for Innovation and Technology, Berlin. Available from:, DoA: 5 June 2015.

Kloudová, J. and Stehlíková, B., 2010: Creativity Index for the Czech Republic in Terms of Regional Similarities and Geographical Location. In: Economics and Management, Volume 15, Issue 1, TU Liberec, pp. 100-109.

Kong, L., 2012: Improbable Art: The Creative Economy and Sustainable Cluster Development in a Hong Kong Industrial District. In: Eurasian Geography and Economics, Volume 53, Issue 2, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 182-196. DOI:

Kovács, Z., Tamás, E. and Szabó, B., 2011: Geographical aspects of creative economy in Hungary. In: Space and Society, Volume 25, Issue 1, EPD Ltd, pp. 42-62.

Lazzeretti, L., Boix, R. and Capone, F., 2008: Do Creative Industries Cluster? Mapping Creative Local Production Systems in Italy and Spain. In: Industry and Innovation, Volume 15, Issue 5, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 549–567. DOI:

Mace, M. and Ward, T., 2002: Modeling the Creative Process: A Grounded Theory Analysis of Creativity in the Domain of Art Makin. In: Creativity Research Journal, Volume 14, Issue 2, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 179-192. DOI:

Marková, B., 2014: Creative Clusters in the Czech Republic-Strategy for Local Development or Fashionable Concept?” In: Moravian Geographical Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1, AV ČR, pp. 44-50. DOI:

Meierzu Köcker, G. and Rosted, J., 2010: Promoting Cluster Excellence. Measuring and Benchmarking the Quality of Cluster Organisations and Performance of Clusters. VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH, FORA. Available from:, DoA: 23 September 2015.

Mietzner, D. and Kamprath, M., 2013: A Competence Portfolio for Professionals in the Creative Industries. In: Creativity and Innovation Management, Volume 22, Issue 3, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 280-294. DOI:

Murphy, A., 2012: China’s Cultural and Creative Economy: An Introduction. In: Eurasian Geography and Economics, Volume 53, Issue 2, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 179-191. DOI:

Oksanen, K. and Ståhle, P., 2013: Physical Environment as a Source for Innovation: Investigating the Attributes of Innovative Space. In: Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 17, Issue 6, Emerald Ltd, pp. 815-827. DOI:

Pike, A., Rodríguez-Pose, A. and Tomaney, J., 2007: What Kind of Local and Regional Development and for Whom? In: Regional Studies, Volume 41, Issue 9, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 1253-1269.

Porter, M., 1998: Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press.

Power, D., 2011: The European Cluster Observatory Priority Sector Report: Creative and Cultural Industries, In: Europa Innova Paper N° 16. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Available from:, DoA 10 June 2015.

Rowlands, H.B., 2005: Grounded in Practice: Using Interpretive Research to Build Theory. In: Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, Volume 3, Issue 1, Academic Publishing Ltd, pp. 81-92.

Selada, C., Cunha, I. and Tomaz, E., 2012: Creative-based Strategies in Small and Medium-sized Cities: Key Dimensions of Analysis. In: Questiones Geographicae, Volume 31, Issue 4, AMU Poznań, pp. 43-51. DOI:

Semm, K., 2011: Neighborhood Milieu in the Cultural Economy of City Development: Berlin’s Helmholtzplatz and Soldiner in the German “Social City” Program. In: Cities, Volume 28, Issue 1, Elsevier Ltd, pp. 95-106. DOI:

Slach, O., Koutský, J., Novotný, J. and Ženka, J., 2013: Creative industries in the Czech Republic: a spatial perspective. In: Economics and Management, Volume 16, Issue 4, TU Liberec, pp.14-29.

Stam E., De Jong, P.J. and Marlet, G., 2008: Creative Industries in the Netherlands: Structure, Development, Innovativeness and Effects on Urban Growth. In: Geografiska Annaler: Series B. Human Geography, Volume 90, Issue 2, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 119-132. DOI:

Storper, M. and Allen J. S., 2009: Rethinking Human Capital, Creativity and Urban Growth. In: Journal of Economic Geography, Volume 9, Issue 2, Oxford Journals Ltd, pp. 147-167. DOI:

Strauss, A. and Juliet M. C., 1990: Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques, Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Szultka, S., 2012: Klastry w sektorach kreatywnych – motory rozwoju miast i regionów (Clusters in creative sectors - drivers of urban and regional development - in Polish), Wydanie I, Warszawa: Polska Agencja Rozwoju Przedsiębiorczości.

Środa-Murawska, S. and Szymańska, D., 2013: The concentration of the creative sector firms as a potential basis for the formation of creative clusters in Poland. In: Szymańska, D. and Chodkowska-Miszczuk, J. editors, Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, No. 20, Toruń: Nicolaus Copernicus University Press, pp. 85–93. DOI:

Turok, I., 2004: Cities, Regions and Competitiveness, In: Regional Studies, Volume 38, Issue 9, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 1069-1083. DOI:

UNCTAD 2010. Creative Economy Report 2010. Available from: :, DoA: June 10.

Unsworth, L.K. and Clegg, Ch., 2010: Why Do Employees Undertake Creative Action? In: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Volume 83, Issue 1, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 77-99. DOI:

VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik 2012: European Cluster Excellence Initiative (ECEI): The quality label for cluster organisations - criteria, processes, framework of implementation. Working Group 2 of ECEI. Available from:, DoA: 10 June 2015.

White, D.S., Gunasekaran, A. and Roy, M., 2014: Performance Measures and Metrics for the Creative Economy, In: Benchmarking: An International Journal, Volume 21, Issue 1, Emerald Ltd, pp. 46-61. DOI:

Wolfe, A.D. and Bramwell, A., 2008: Innovation, Creativity and Governance: Social Dynamics of Economic Performance in City-regions. In: Innovation: management, policy & practice, Volume 10, Issue 2, Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 170-182.

Print ISSN: 1732-4254
Online ISSN: 2083-8298

Partnerzy platformy czasopism