Differentiation of reproductive behaviour of the population of Kraków Metropolitan Area in the light of survey research

Jadwiga Gałka, Sławomir Kurek, Mirosław Wójtowicz

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bog-2016-0004


Metropolitan areas are the poles of economic growth of regions and countries. These areas are characterized by specific development cycles, which are related to the direction of population migrations. Accordingly, there is a phase of urbanisation, suburbanisation, disurbanisation and re-urbanisation. Studies show that most Polish metropolitan areas are undergoing the process of suburbanisation, which means the movement of population from the central city to its suburban area. This process entails a number of demographic, social and economic consequences. One of the main demographic consequences of suburbanisation is the change in the structure of the central city and its suburban area. The reason for this is the fact that migrations from the centre are usually undertaken by young people. Thus, the number of inhabitants of the central city declines and the population is ageing. Migrants from the city bring new patterns of social and demographic behaviour, which may be shown in, among others, the tendencies of indigenous people to change the traditional family model. This paper attempts to determine the reproductive behaviour patterns of the population of the Krakow Metropolitan Area (KMA) in the light of the survey. The surveys were conducted in selected KMA municipalities in 2013. The analysis of qualitative data, divided into two categories of respondents: immigrant and indigenous inhabitants, will give an answer to the question, what are the reproductive attitudes of the population and how they may affect the further development of these areas?

Full Text:




Basten, S., Huinink, J. and Klüsener, S., 2011: Spatial Variation of Sub-national Fertility Trends in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. In: Comparative Population Studies – Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 36 (2/3), pp. 573-614. DOI:10.4232/10.CPoS-2011-08en

Boyle, P., 2003: Population geography: does geography matter in fertility research? In: Progress in Human Geography, Vol. 27 (5), pp. 615-626. DOI: http://.dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132503ph452pr

Boyle, P.J., Graham, E. and Feng, Z., 2008: Contextualising demography: The significance of local clusters of fertility in Scotland. In: MPIDR Working Paper, WP-2008-036, pp. 1-39.

Buzar, S., Ogden, P.E. and Hall, R., 2005: Household matter: the quiet demography of urban transformation. In: Progress in Human Geography, Vol. 29 (4), pp. 413-436. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132505ph558oa

Champion, A.G., 1992: Urban and regional demographic trends in the developed world. In: Urban Studies, Vol. 29 (3/4), pp. 461-82. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/00420989220080531

CBOS, 2010: Postawy prokreacyjne Polaków (Procreative attitudes of Poles – in Polish), Komunikat z badań, 4, Warszawa.

Dyson, T., 2011: The Role of the Demographic Transition in the Process of Urbanization. In: Population and Development Review, Vol. 37 (1), pp. 34-54. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2011.00377.x

Felson, M. and Solaún, M., 1975: The fertility-inhibiting effect of crowded apartment-living in a tight housing market. In: The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 80 (6), pp. 1410-1427. DOI: http/dx.doi.org/10.1086/225997

Gentile, M., Tammaru, T. and van Kempen, R., 2012: Heteropolitanization: Social and spatial change in Central and East European Cities. In: Cities, Vol. 29 (5), pp. 291-299. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2012.05.005

Hank, K., 2001: Regional fertility differences in Western Germany: an overview of the literature and recent descriptive findings. In: International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 7, pp. 243-257. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijpg.228

Haase, A., Steinführer, A., Kabisch, S., Buzar, S., Hall, R., Ogden, P.E., 2010: Emergent spaces of reurbanisation: exploring the demographic dimension of inner‐city residential change in a European setting. In: Population, Space and Place, Vol. 16, pp. 443-463. DOI: 10.1002/psp.603

Jakóbczyk-Gryszkiewicz, J., 1998: Przeobrażenia stref podmiejskich dużych miast. Studium porównawcze strefy podmiejskiej Warszawy, Łodzi i Krakowa (Transformations of suburban areas. A comparative study of the suburban area of Warsaw, Lodz and Krakow – in Polish), Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.

Jakóbczyk-Gryszkiewicz, J., 2011: Regiony miejskie w Polsce. Dwadzieścia lat transformacji (Urban regions in Poland. Twenty years of transition – in Polish), Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.

Kährik A. and Tammaru, T., 2008: Population composition in new suburban settlements of the Tallin Metropolitan Area. In: Urban Studies, 45 (5/6), pp. 1055-1078. DOI: 10.1177/0042098008089853

Kotowska, I., Jóźwiak, J., Matysiak, A. and Baranowska, A., 2008: Poland: Fertility decline as a response to profound societal and labour market changes? In: Demographic Research, Vol. 19, pp. 795-854. DOI: http: dx.doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2008.19.22

Kulu, H., 2005: Migration and Fertility: Competing Hypotheses Re-examined. In: European Journal of Population, Vol. 21 (1), pp. 51-87. DOI: http.dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10680-005-3581-8

Kulu, H., 2006, Fertility of internal migrants: comparison between Austria and Poland. In: Population, Space and Place, Vol. 12 (3), pp. 147-170. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/10.1002/psp.406

Kulu, H. and Vikat, A., 2007: Fertility differences by housing type: The effect of housing conditions or of selective moves? In: Demographic Research, Vol. 17, pp. 775-802. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2007.17.26

Kulu, H. and Boyle, P.J., 2008: High Fertility in City Suburbs: Compositional or Contextual Effects? In: European Journal of Population, Vol. 25 (2), pp. 157-174. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10680-008-9163-9

Kulu, H., Boyle, P.J. and Andersson, G., 2009: High suburban fertility: Evidence from four Northern European countries. In: Demographic Research, Vol. 21, pp. 915-944, DOI: http/dx.doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2009.21.31.

Kurek, S., 2008: Typologia starzenia się ludności Polski w ujęciu przestrzennym (The typology of Population ageing in Poland from a spatial perspective – in Polish), Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej.

Kurek, S. and Lange, M., 2013: Zmiany zachowań prokreacyjnych w Polsce w ujęciu przestrzennym (Changes in reproductive behaviour in Poland from a spatial perspective – in Polish), Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UP.

Lesthaeghe, R., 2010: The Unfolding Story of the Second Demographic Transition. In: Population and Development Review, Vol. 36 (2), pp. 211-251. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2010.00328.x

Lesthaeghe, R. and Neels, K., 2002: From the first to the second demographic transition: an interpretation of the spatial continuity of demographic innovation in France, Belgium and Switzerland. In: European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de démographie, Vol. 18 (4), pp. 325-360. DOI: http.dx.doi.org/ 10.1023/A:1021125800070

Lutz, W., Testa, M. R. and Penn, D. J., 2006: Population density is a key factor in declining human fertility. In: Population and Environment, Vol. 28 (2), pp. 69-81. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s11111-007-0037-6

Michielin, F., 2004: Lowest low fertility in an urban context: The role of migration in Turin, Italy. In: Population, Space and Place, Vol. 10 (4), pp. 331-347. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/10.1002/psp.337

Mulder, C.H., 2006: Population and housing: a two-sided relationship. In: Demographic Research, Vol. 15, pp. 401-412. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2006.15.13

Ogden, P.E. and Hall, R., 2004: The second demographic transition, new household forms and the urban population of France during the 1990s. In: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 29 (1), pp. 88-105. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.0020-2754.2004.00116.x

Soja, M., 2012: Demographic development and changes of land-use in the Beskid Niski Mountains, Poland, between 1869 and 2009. In: Szymańska, D. and Biegańska, J. editors, Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, No. 18, Toruń: Nicolaus Copernicus

University Press, pp. 109–116. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10089-012-0023-3

Steinführer, A. and Haase, A., 2007: Demographic change as a future challenge for cities in East Central Europe. In: Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, Vol. 89 ( 2), pp. 183-195. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1468-0467.2007.00247.x

Steinführer, A., Bierzyński, A., Großmann, K., Haase, A., Kabisch, S. and Klusácek, P., 2010: Population Decline in Polish and Czech Cities during Post-socialism? Looking Behind the Official Statistics. In: Urban Studies, Vol. 47 (11), pp. 2325-2346. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/10.1177/0042098009360224

Surkyn, J. and Lesthaeghe, R., 2004: Value orientations and the second demographic transition (SDT) in Northern, Western and Southern Europe: An update. In: Demographic Research, Special Collection, Vol. 3, pp. 43-86. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2004.S3.1

Śleszyński, P., 2006: Demograficzny wymiar procesów suburbanizacji w Polsce po 1989 roku (Demographic dimension of suburbanization processes in Poland after 1989 – in Polish). In: Kozłowski, S., editor, Żywiołowe rozprzestrzenianie się miast. Narastający problem aglomeracji miejskich w Polsce, Studia nad zrównoważonym rozwojem, Białystok-Lublin-Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Ekonomia i Środowisko, pp. 105-123.

Tyszka, Z., 2002: Rodzina we współczesnym świecie (Family in the modern world – in Polish), Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Seria Socjologia, No 31.

Valkonen, T., Blomgren, J., Kauppinen, T.M., Martikainen, P. and Mäenpää, E., 2008: The effects of regional socioeconomic and cultural characteristics on the spatial patterns of the Second Demographic Transition in Finland. In: Demographic Research, Vol. 19, pp. 2043-2056. DOI: http//dx.doi.com/10.4054/DemRes.2008.19.61

Van de Kaa, D.J., 1987: Europe's second demographic transition. In: Population Bulletin, Vol. 42 (1), pp. 1-59.

Van de Kaa, D.J., 2003, The idea of a second demographic transition in industrialized countries. In: Japanese Journal of Population, Vol. 1 (1), pp. 42-75.

Vobecká, J. and Piguet, V., 2012: Fertility, Natural Growth, and Migration in the Czech Republic: an Urban–Suburban–Rural Gradient Analysis of Long-Term Trends and Recent Reversalpp. In: Population, Space and Place, Vol. 18 (3), pp. 225-240. DOI: http//dx.doi.org/10.1002/psp.698

Więcław-Michniewska, J., 2011: Suburbanizacja w Krakowskim Obszarze Metropolitalnym (Suburbanization in the Krakow Metropolitan Area – in Polish). In: Jakóbczyk-Gryszkiewicz, I. editor, Regiony miejskie w Polsce. Dwadzieścia lat transformacji, Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, pp. 73-88.

Zborowski, A., Chaberko, T. and Kretowicz, P., 2011: Procesy suburbanizacji rezydencjonalnej w regionie miejskim Krakowa: przemiany społeczno-przestrzenne (The processes of residential Suburbanization in the Krakow urban region: socio-spatial changes – in Polish). In: Jakóbczyk-Gryszkiewicz, I. editor, Regiony miejskie w Polsce. Dwadzieścia lat transformacji, Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, pp. 49-72.

Print ISSN: 1732-4254
Online ISSN: 2083-8298

Partnerzy platformy czasopism