Niderlandzki modlitewnik 83 ze zbiorów toruńskich – przyczynek do badań nad warsztatem iluminatorskim w późnym średniowieczu

Monika Jakubek-Raczkowska



The subject of the analysis is a codex Geert Groote Cannonical Hours (cod, 83/I) from the Special Collection of the University Library in Toruń, up till 1945 being a part of collection of the Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek in Königsberg. It is one of more interesting, luxurious devotional books in Toruń collection, richly decorated with initials and floral bordures with drolerie motifs on the margins. It has been introduced to the literature by Alicja Karłowska-Kamzowa, but so far it have not had a full monograph and the information on its provenance and dating have to be revised.

The codex, written in low-Netherlandish language with Latin insertions and preceded with a calendar of the Utrecht Diocese, most probably made a book of private usus (probably of a lay person). Basing on the analysis of the style of figural parts, the applied composition schemes and numerous ornamental motifs one can assume that it was made in the North-Netherland environment (circle of “Masters of Otto van Moerdrecht”) and shift its dating (once established by Alicja Karłowska-Kamzowa to the turn of 15th century) towards the second quarter of 15th century.

An important research issue in case of the codex is the division and systematics of work within the illuminators’ workshop, perceptible thanks to leaving numerous parts without the final finish. A thorough analysis of the technique of making the ornaments allows to trace the subsequent stages of work and its “conveyor-belt” organisation as well as to point out the reasons for “hierarchisation” of tasks. The features of ornamentation systems in the gatherings and the exceptions from the perceptible rules allow for looking at the “individualities” active at the execution of that codex in a new light. The creative method studied in the present paper allows to resign from attributing the work to just two masters, however the number of decorators is hard to be decided on. Also unanswered remains the question of the reasons why the work has not been completed

Słowa kluczowe

Niderlandzki modlitewnik; Toruń; warsztat iluminatorski; średniowiecze

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