Theoria et Historia Scientiarum https://apcz.umk.pl/THS <p id="docs-internal-guid-b9c1b9bf-9623-ac95-7992-379a20356be9" dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.38; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">"Theoria et Historia Scientiarum"</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> (ISSN: 0867-4159 (print); ISSN 2392-1196 (online)) is an international academic journal, published by the Nicolaus Copernicus University since 1991. The journal is interdisciplinary and its thematic profile includes the theory of humanities and social sciences, cognitive science, sociology of culture and linguistics. The journal’s editorial board includes some of the world’s leading scholars in these disciplines.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> </span></span></p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.38; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">Theoria et Historia Scientiarum</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> is an open access journal, and starting with volume 1, full texts of all papers are available online. Issues 1-8 are available after the process of digitalisation.<br /></span></p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.38; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> </span></p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.38; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">The project "The digitalisation of the THS archaive issues with the use of the OCR recognition software and proofreading after OCR in order to make them available on the Internet" as well as the professional language proofreading of the volumes 14(2017) and 15(2018) have been funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education as a part of the 785/P-DUN/2017 agreement. The proorfeading of the volumes 16(2019) and 17(2020) have been funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education as a part of the 672/P-DUN/2019 agreement.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> </span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">Theoria et Historia Scientiarum</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> is <span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">indexed </span></span>in<strong> SCOPUS.</strong></span> <br /></span></span></p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.38; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">Theoria et Historia Scientiarum</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> is an </span><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=484510"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: underline; vertical-align: baseline;">ERIH PLUS</span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> journal.</span></p> <p dir="ltr" style="line-height: 1.38; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">Theoria et Historia Scientiarum</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> is a </span><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeoinfo.html"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: underline; vertical-align: baseline;">SHERPA RoMEO</span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> Green journal.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><br /><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">Theoria et Historia Scientiarum</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> is indexed in ERIH PLUS; Electronic Journals Library (EZB); MIAR (Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals); ARIANTA; NUKAT.</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><img src="https://apcz.umk.pl/czasopisma/public/site/images/greg/logo_400x200.jpg" alt="" width="296" height="148" /></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> </span></span></p> Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń en-US Theoria et Historia Scientiarum 0867-4159 Text in psycholinguistics https://apcz.umk.pl/THS/article/view/41666 <p>The article gives the insight into the notion of “text” via “prism” of linguistic and psycholinguistic parameters and presents its “broad” and “narrow” interpretation in humanities. It is pointed out that the linguistic parameters of the text include its in-tegrity, coherence, and boundary structuring, while psycholinguistic definitions focus on emotions and creativity of the sender and addressee. The psychological aspects and stages of text creation are analyzed with reference to knowledge of its background and linguistic presupposition. The contribution of Ukrainian and foreign studies to the development of the psycholinguistic foundations of the text are discussed on the basis of examples from Ukrainian literature. It is proved that the interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of the text is crucial for text study; the peculiarities of text creation are characterized through the opposition “generation – perception”, as well as through the expression of the linguistic personality of its <em>ego</em> in the text. The positive and negative impact of the text on the recipient is highlighted as well as it gives up-to-date interpretation of such notions as <em>pathological text</em>, <em>apperception</em>,<em> understanding</em>, <em>interpretational variability</em> of the text. The phenomenon of linguistic and psycho-accentuation is being analyzed on the basis of the texts of Ukrainian distinguished writers (P. Kulish, O. Kobylyanska, I. Ogienko, and others). The author characterizes the influence of linguistic and extralinguistic factors on increasing psycholinguistic accentuation.</p> Vitaliia Papish Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2023-01-04 2023-01-04 18 7 25 10.12775/ths.2021.001 Changes in communication and language thinking of Ukrainians in the era of the coronavirus pandemic https://apcz.umk.pl/THS/article/view/41669 <p>Under the influence of the coronavirus pandemic, the modern world is expe-riencing a communicative revolution. Internet communication and the phenomenon of virtuality are globalizing, and behavioural and communicative models are being modified. In this reality, a person rebuilds and acquires new knowledge, the perception of the world changes, new language thinking appears, a kind of neologization of the Ukrainian language takes place, linguistic terminology develops and the linguistic creativity is being actualized.</p> Tetiana Kosmeda Tetiana Osipova Vira Slipets'ka Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2023-01-04 2023-01-04 18 27 47 10.12775/ths.2021.002 Grammatical transformations in translation of political speeches https://apcz.umk.pl/THS/article/view/41671 <p>The paper is devoted to the problem of translation of political speeches, which is extremely relevant today, as political activity plays a special role in society, affects the country’s place in the international arena and its relations with other coun-tries. Politicians have the opportunity to appeal to both the international community and their compatriots, gain recognition, demonstrate their leadership and represent their country in the best possible way via speeches. Translation of political speeches is considered to be one of the most complicated types of translation, which is the area of increased linguistic responsibility. Translation transformations, which are defined as certain structural or semantic changes that are the result of lexical and grammatical differences in languages, are used to achieve translation equivalence (translation adequacy) despite the differences in the formal and semantic systems of two languages. The research is aimed at examining the peculiarities of political speeches and difficulties arising in the process of their rendering into Ukrainian. This paper consists of six main sections. The first is an introduction to the study. The second examines the definition and features of political speeches given by national and foreign scientists. The third section explains the methodology used in the study and the data selection process. In the course of analysis, the existing scientific literature concerning the topic at hand providing valid grounds for the practical part of the work has been analyzed and grammatical translation transformation examples have been selected and examined. The research data was taken from the website of the US Embassy in Ukraine. Thereafter the focus shifts to challenges the students face in translation of political speeches and highlights the grammatical transformations classification that constituted the theoretical basis of the research. The fifth section is devoted to analyzing the data and the last section summarizes the findings of the study.</p> Nataliia Ababilova Rymma Maiboroda Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2023-01-04 2023-01-04 18 49 67 10.12775/ths.2021.003 Cognitive and semiotic determinants of sign order in gestural and pictorial event representations https://apcz.umk.pl/THS/article/view/41673 <p>The way people order signs in non-verbal event representations of events has been a topic of extensive research in recent decades, with conflicting findings. Based on a literature review, we distinguish the following factors that have been argued to influence sign order: (a) diagrammatic iconicity, (b) manipulation vs. construction events, (c) reversibility, (d) most common word order of L1, (e) the semiotic system (gesture, depiction) used, and (f) a putative “natural” Agent–Patient–Act order. To test the role of these factors, we conducted a study where Swedish participants observed events that varied with respect to reversibility and construction/manipulation status, and then had to communicate them to an addressee using gestures for half the stimuli. For the other half, they used sequences of simple drawings of the event participants and the action. The results showed the huge influence of the semiotic system (e) on sign order. There was a role of reversibility (c) only when gestures were used, while L1 word order (d) only had an effect when sequences of pictures were used. The “ontological status” of the Patient (b) was shown to affect the representations in both semiotic systems but was much stronger for gestures. Even the two most general factors (a) and (f) where shown to be sensitive to the type of semiotic system. Future studies of how such cognitive and semiotic determinants interact are needed to fully understand the phenomenon of sign order preference.</p> Anu Vastenius Jordan Zlatev Joost van de Weijer Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2023-01-04 2023-01-04 18 69 92 10.12775/ths.2021.004 Personalization of the Spirit Culture and Ukrainian Mentality in the Philosophy of Hryhoriy Skovoroda (to the 300th anniversary of his birth) https://apcz.umk.pl/THS/article/view/41681 <p>Hryhoriy Skovoroda (1722–1794) is an outstanding Ukrainian philosopher-educator, whose life path is represented by a holistic concept of God-seeking – the search for God, which is the “highest wisdom”. In his teaching, the True Man and Christ are represented as a single entity. The path of discovering the “image of God” in one’s own heart is chosen by the thinker as the salvation of mankind by deep faith, in which observance of “external” rites and true faith are separated. The central cultural and philosophical universal of H. Skovoroda’s teachings is the “philosophy of the heart”, which rotates in the author’s concept sphere and echoes the concept of “joy of the heart” and the image of “roundness” as “desired happiness”, associated with the deep philosophical idea of “kind of labor”, on which Skovorodinsky anti-clericalism was built.The range of worldview orientations of Н. Skovoroda is unusually wide, which allows us to consider him a religious freethinker. The philosopher moves away from orthodox Christianity, is not satisfied with the dogmatism and authoritarianism of religion, and seeks to rationalistically structure the main provisions of the Christian dogma, give them a moral and ethical interpretation, consider the symbolic content and biblical images. The philosopher thought of his personal life as the life of a sage-teacher who is constantly in communion and connection with God. It is important that the meaning of prayer, according to Н. Skovoroda, is gratitude to God for making the necessary not difficult, and making the difficult unnecessary. The article aims to present to the reader some aspects of personalization of the spirit of European culture and Ukrainian mentality in the philosophy of H. Skovoroda in order to interpret the main guidelines of the humanist philosopher’s worldview, understanding the conceptual sphere of his leading ideas, scientific reflections, myths and stereotypes surrounding the figure of the scientist, and determining the universality of the humanistic teaching of the thinker as an intermediary between European cultural values and Ukrainian national identifity.</p> Alexandra Shtepenko Anatoliy Kolodnyi Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2023-01-04 2023-01-04 18 93 111 10.12775/ths.2021.005