https://apcz.umk.pl/THS/issue/feed Theoria et Historia Scientiarum 2021-02-02T09:56:32+01:00 Sławomir Wacewicz wacewicz@umk.pl Open Journal Systems <p id="docs-internal-guid-b9c1b9bf-9623-ac95-7992-379a20356be9" style="line-height: 1.38; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;" dir="ltr"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">"Theoria et Historia Scientiarum"</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> (ISSN: 0867-4159 (print); ISSN 2392-1196 (online)) is an international academic journal, published by the Nicolaus Copernicus University since 1991. More recently, the thematic scope of the journal has been broadly construed Cognitive Science and language evolution. The journal’s editorial board includes some of the world’s leading scholars in Cognitive Science and language evolution.</span></p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><br /></span></span><p style="line-height: 1.38; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;" dir="ltr"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">Theoria et Historia Scientiarum</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> is an open access journal, and starting with volume 1, full texts of all papers are available online. Issues 1-8 are available after the process of digitalisation.<br /></span></p><p style="line-height: 1.38; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;" dir="ltr"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><br /></span></p><p style="line-height: 1.38; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;" dir="ltr"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">The project "The digitalisation of the THS archaive issues with the use of the OCR recognition software and proofreading after OCR in order to make them available on the Internet" as well as the professional language proofreading of the volumes 14(2017) and 15(2018) have been funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education as a part of the 785/P-DUN/2017 agreement. The proorfeading of the volumes <span>16(2019) and 17(2020) have been funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education as a part of the </span><span>672/P-DUN/2019</span><span> agreement.</span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><br /></span></span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">Theoria et Historia Scientiarum</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> is <span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">indexed </span></span>in<strong> SCOPUS.</strong></span> <br /></span></span></p><p style="line-height: 1.38; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;" dir="ltr"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">Theoria et Historia Scientiarum</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> is an </span><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=484510"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: underline; vertical-align: baseline;">ERIH PLUS</span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> journal.</span></p><p style="line-height: 1.38; margin-top: 0pt; margin-bottom: 0pt;" dir="ltr"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">Theoria et Historia Scientiarum</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> is a </span><a style="text-decoration: none;" href="http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeoinfo.html"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: underline; vertical-align: baseline;">SHERPA RoMEO</span></a><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> Green journal.</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><br /><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;">Theoria et Historia Scientiarum</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"> is indexed in ERIH PLUS; Electronic Journals Library (EZB); MIAR (Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals); ARIANTA; NUKAT.</span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><img src="/czasopisma/public/site/images/greg/logo_400x200.jpg" alt="" width="296" height="148" /></span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #38761d; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline;"><br /></span></span></p> https://apcz.umk.pl/THS/article/view/ths.2020.001 Language: The missing selection pressure 2021-02-02T09:56:32+01:00 Jean-Louis Dessalles dessalles@telecom-paris.fr Human beings are talkative. What advantage did their ancestors find in communicating so much? Numerous authors consider this advantage to be “obvious” and “enormous”. If so, the problem of the evolutionary emergence of language amounts to explaining why none of the other primate species evolved anything even remotely similar to language. I propose to reverse the picture. On closer examination, language resembles a losing strategy. Competing for providing other individuals with information, sometimes striving to be heard, makes apparently no sense within a Darwinian framework. At face value, language as we can observe it should never have existed or should have been counter-selected. In other words, the selection pressure that led to language is still missing. The solution I propose consists in regarding language as a social signaling device that developed in a context of generalized insecurity that is unique to our species. By talking, individuals advertise their alertness and their ability to get informed. This hypothesis is shown to be compatible with many characteristics of language that otherwise are left unexplained. 2021-01-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Theoria et Historia Scientiarum https://apcz.umk.pl/THS/article/view/ths.2020.002 The Natural Order of Events: speakers of Polish do not follow the pattern 2021-02-02T09:56:32+01:00 Monika Boruta-Żywiczyńska monika.feba@doktorant.umk.pl Marek Placiński marpla@doktorant.umk.pl <p>Research on constituent order is informative about language development and change, since constituent order is one of the earliest properties of language learned by children, and it displays a systematic variation across the languages of the world (Goldin-Meadow et al., 2008), including sign languages (Napoli &amp; Sutton-Spence, 2014). Nonverbal communication in language evolution studies is currently in focus due to the gestural primacy hypothesis, which posits that language could have first emerged as a gestural/pantomimic system and subsequently evolved into primarily vocal communication (Żywiczyński &amp; Wacewicz, 2015; Żywiczyński, 2018). In this paper, we review our earlier work on constituent order in pantomimic production, and complement it with two studies which investigated the influence of constituent order on comprehension. We conclude that constituent order has no influence on comprehension of pantomime.</p> 2021-01-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Theoria et Historia Scientiarum https://apcz.umk.pl/THS/article/view/ths.2020.003 Non-Native English Speakers’ Attitudes Towards Polish-Accented English 2021-02-02T09:56:32+01:00 Julia Trzeciakowska julietrz09@gmail.com <p class="002Abstractcontent">Worldwide, most research on attitudes towards foreign-accented English has focused on the judgements of native speakers or differences between the groups of native speakers and non-native speakers – and not on the evaluations of international speakers. The present paper goes against this trend and points to the infancy of attitudinal research in a more international context. The paper identifies the necessity for research in two major areas: 1) attitudes of non-native English speakers towards non-native English accents, 2) differences in normative versus intuitive approaches to teaching English pronunciation. Such empirically-oriented research is crucial to enhance the understanding of non-native speakers attitudes to foreign accent and pronunciation teaching relations. To support these claims, the paper first provides an overview of the literature on attitudinal research, an emphasis is put on attitudes of Polish language users. It further discusses the attitudes towards accented speech in the globalised world, in which English has a status of lingua franca; thus, being an accented speaker among other accented speakers is prevalent in various contexts. The tailored-English teaching models are considered here a possible factor influencing the mutual attitudes of non-native speakers. The article advocates taking steps towards a closer fit between pronunciation teaching policies and standards as well as evaluation criteria actually applicable in the context of real multinational use of English.</p> 2021-01-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Theoria et Historia Scientiarum https://apcz.umk.pl/THS/article/view/ths.2020.004 Ecological validity in the study of language 2021-02-02T09:56:32+01:00 Waldemar Skrzypczak spaceout@umk.pl <p>Having its seat in both realms, the subjective and the intersubjective, as a product of human mind, society and culture, language appears to be the most complex phenomenon in the known Universe. It displays multiple layers of organization in its spoken and written manifestations, none of which can be ignored at the expense of any other, in communication, ideation and information processing. Therefore language, being an organic system of utmost complexity, requires holistic and organic methodology. Such methodology requires meeting the criterion of ecological validity. In the realm of psychological research, Gilliam Cohen, a cognitive psychologist, advocates “a return to real-life situations”, such as “remembering real faces, shopping lists, scenes, etc.” She demonstrated a reaction against “rigorous and artificial” psychological experiments, based on “nonsense syllables or words out of context”.<a title="" href="#_ftn1">[1]</a> Similarly, ‘ecological validity’ in linguistics requires a naturalistic treatment of linguistic data, real usage instances stemming from field work and/or the study of discourse/texts. Both observation and experimentation in linguistic research require naturalistic methods, where the so-called ‘simplicity should not be sought at the expense of factuality’. In this sense, explorations into real texts within the Systemic-Functional Grammar framework, field work in the Anthropological Linguistics tradition, or the usage-based model proposed in Cognitive Grammar, all meet the criterion of ecological validity.</p><p> This paper is bound to grasp some of the questions inherent within multiple spectra organically resting among the constellations that reflect philosophical, psychological and linguistic points of reference. These points of reference also emerged organically and naturally throughout the history of their evolution, in their own terms, as they evolved in their ‘ecosystems’ of ideas. In this way we hope to provide a broad realm for reflection on language and linguistic methodology, allowing to see unity through diversity, thus creating mutual affiliations of a parallel, convergent and complementary character, in the vein of an organic whole. First, we shall take a bird’s eye view on ontological and epistemological questions regarding any kind of exploration within the Universe of natural phenomena. Next, we shall take a general view on linguistic enquiry in the 20<sup>th</sup> century. Finally, we shall survey key approaches to language articulating overall aspects of structural, functional, generative and cognitive orientations.</p><div><br clear="all" /><hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div><p><a title="" href="#_ftnref1">[1]</a> Cohen, 1977:6</p></div></div> 2021-01-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Theoria et Historia Scientiarum