Sztuka i Kultura 2018-10-23T09:50:23+02:00 Ryszard Mączyński Open Journal Systems <p>„Sztuka i Kultura” jest naukowym periodykiem – pod auspicjami Katedry Historii Sztuki i Kultury – który winien odzwierciedlać w całym bogactwie rozmaitość kierunków i tendencji współczesnej historii sztuki, ujawniających się poprzez zainteresowania poszczególnych autorów. Nie będzie ograniczać się do jednego problemu, jednego tematu czy jednej epoki, lecz raczej rok po roku prezentować efekty aktualnie prowadzonych i finalizowanych prac badawczych w całej ich różnorodności.</p> Nota o Autorach 2018-10-23T09:50:23+02:00 Ryszard Mączyński 2016-12-01T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Sztuka i Kultura Cud purimowy z Dura Europos. Reprezentacja Księgi Estery w antycznej sztuce żydowskiej 2018-10-23T09:50:22+02:00 Magdalena Maciudzińska-Kamczycka <p>The wall paintings from Dura Europos synagogue are the earliest surviving biblical narrative cycle in ancient Jewish art. The Dura Europos synagogue has been the focal point of numerous studies and scholarly research since it was discovered in 1932 by a group of archaeologists from Yale University. The synagogue was rebuilt and enlarged in about 244/245 CE, and six years later the wall of the House of Assembly were covered with unique paintings. The most of them were drawn from the Hebrew Bible and include many narrative scenes like the Sacrifice of Isaac; Samuel anointing David; the visions of Ezekiel; the infancy of Moses, and some single figure "portraits" like Moses with a scroll. The Purim miracle, depicting the triumph of Mordecai and Esther, located in the center of the western wall, near the Torah shrine, is one of the most distinctive paintings from this synagogue.</p><p>The composition of the Purim panel includes several scenes from the Book of Esther. The first episode, occupying the left side of the panel, presents Mordecai in Iranian royal robes riding triumphantly through the streets of Susa, which is led by his enemy Haman. Next to them, a group of four unidentified men in typical Greek dress is standing with their hands raised in a gesture of acclamation. On the right side, King Ahasuerus and Queen Esther are shown in Persian attire sitting on a separate thrones with their courtiers. One of them appears in front of the king holding a letter in his hand. This rolled document indicates the narrative’s diversion of the Purim story and it can be particularly useful in understanding<em> </em>the entire panel. </p> Most of the interpretations deal with their iconographic and stylistic origins. The paintings have been read as decorative or liturgical elements of a building executed by a local Jewish community. Located between Damascus and Bagdad, Dura-Europos was a Hellenistic, Parthian and Roman border city founded on the right bank of the Euphrates River. The Jewish quarter of Dura dates to the early Parthian period, but the prosperity of the community belongs to the Roman presence in the city when the synagogue was enlarged and decorated. The Purim panel reflects the political situation and the hopes of the Jews of Dura Europos. 2016-12-01T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Sztuka i Kultura Geneza formy architektonicznej kościoła Mariackiego w Gdańsku – późnogotyckiej świątyni Rady Głównego Miasta 2018-10-23T09:50:22+02:00 Elżbieta Pilecka <p>The Church of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin Mary, the parish church of the Main Town of Gdansk, is one of the most magnificent monuments of brick architecture of the Baltic coast. It is a building both important and symptomatic to the direction of changes occurring in late sacral brick architecture. However, while being mentioned in all significant compendia of the history of art, it remains unrecognized. It does not explicitly fit either into the building tradition of great parish churches of hanseatic cities or the architecture of lower Rhine or Holland. The origin of its architectural form cannot be drawn directly from the evolution of the European model of the cathedral church (in its royal-episcopal or bourgeois-patrician variations in planning and spatial characteristics), or from the solutions inspired by Cistercian churches. No sources have been identified in terms of particular hall church buildings in the Baltic coast. Moreover, it was not directly conditioned by the architectonic heritage of the neighboring region, i.e. the religious State of Teutonic Knights in Prussia. The progenitors and the builders of the church did indeed draw some impulses from all of the above mentioned sources, yet their Gdansk building outgrew the formal and expressive capabilities of its model predecessors. The commissioners of that "town council church" participated in a kind of intellectual discourse on the very form of their parish church as well as its ideological expression. It was a discourse of European range and significance, despite the authorities' decisions being made with no awareness as to their "inscribing into the current of formal transformations" of architecture. The form was undoubtedly meant to adequately reflect the intended content. Through that building - at the same time sacral and municipal - patrician town council manifested their status in the Hanseatic League. Yet, their choice of a reductive, 'anti-gothic' language of architectonic forms remained a singularity.</p><p>The artistic conception of that late Gothic church was outlined already in the 1380s by the master Henryk Ungeradin. As a result, changes were introduced into the constructive thought which shaped the pre-existent 14th century basilica. Ungeradin worked out the plan, the idea of the building's internal space and the geometric form of its hall choir. Those outlines also dictated the rebuilding of the nave body beginning from the 1480s, which on its completion merged the nave with the choir and the transept. Various building adjustments occurring in the meantime did not influence the original idea of the master.</p><p>What he had planned was a huge church, with a wide square-ended choir, three-nave transept and a round of chapels enveloping the whole church, built in between the buttressing. The size of the transept, its position halfway down the building's length as well as the rhythm of the nave bays widening towards the center, all contributed to the optical centralization of the whole complex. Thick, rough walls 'categorically' closed the hall area divided by octagonal pillars. These supported the domed calottes of sumptuous crystal and net vaults. An analogous aesthetic effect in the outer view of the geometric form of the building was achieved by juxtaposing plain peripheral walls with the lacelike area of the roof triads above each nave.</p><p>The article was an attempt to provide a response to the question of where Ungeradin's idea did in fact originate, with special attention to the eastern part - the choir and the transept. Looking at the fundamental guidelines for the analysis in such elements of the building as:</p><p>1/. the project of the eastern part based on the so-called cathedral layout (multi-nave, pseudo-ambulatory, square-ended choir, lined with chapels, connected with multi-nave chapel-lined transept, also with straight-ended arms), 2/. accomplishing a hall-like nave layout based on such a plan,</p><p>made it possible to search for the origin of each characteristic of the estate among adequate architectonic types, as well as their variations and mutations in multiple architectonic environments of the late 13th and all through the 14th century. Those taken into consideration included, among other items, ambit choirs in basilica layout on polygonal plan with a round of chapels, ambit choirs in basilica layout on rectangular plan with a round of chapels, hall three-abside closed choirs tending to 'square' their eastern end, choirless hall churches, a group of Baltic city parish churches with their so-called 'cathedral choirs' with chapels and with elaborate transepts, estates of hall churches built according to those plans, with the embedded process of the reduction of the number of sides of the polygon ending and the introduction of shallow inter-buttress chapels equal in height to the naves. It was revealed that the stages leading to the concept of the master Ungeradin could be traced back above all to the regional, Baltic complexes of churches in Stralsund (St. Nicolas), Rostock (Holy Virgin Mary), Doberan (Cistercian), towards the end of the century leading to completely new creations in Wismar (St. George) or Stralsund (Holy Virgin Mary). It is just in the final two that we can find the same formal values. They may have taken shape in a parallel fashion, regardless of the changes taking place in West European architecture of the second half of the 14th century. The example of Stralsund bears particular resemblance to the Gdansk church. Such similarity could even suggest that master Henryk Ungeradin educated himself on the building grounds of the Marian church of that city. Both churches boast a particular and groundbreaking purity of architecture, bestowing value to a wall through its very massive and real character. The Gdansk church became the same late medieval 'picture of the Church', expressed in the language of forms in a very concrete, rational vision.</p>Methodology-wise, the present feedback is consistent with the traditional - undoubtedly requiring further revision - approach of architecture researchers, whose aim is to include the monument into the typological-formal sequence of architectural model transformation. 2016-12-01T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Sztuka i Kultura Od mistrza cechowego do partacza. Życie i twórczość artystyczna toruńskiego malarza Heinricha Christiana Sernera 2018-10-23T09:50:22+02:00 Katarzyna Krupska Bartłomiej Łyczak The article is devoted to the presentation of life and output of a Torun painter Heinrich Christian Serner (died 1729). He became a master in the local guild in 1673. After converting to Catholicism in 1714 he quit being a member of the organization and moved to suburban areas belonging to Benedictine nuns. During that time he completed a number of works in the Torun church of St. Jacob, which too remained under the nuns’ supervision. He was bestowed with the gilding of a few altarpieces, sources also confirm his authorship of three reredos paintings. Two of them, depicting St. Michael Archangel and Guardian Angel have been preserved until today. On the basis of stylistic-comparative analysis other paintings can be attributed to Serner as well. Some of them, namely: God’s Transfiguration and St. Onofre Communion have so far been mistakenly linked to Johann Georg Petri, who worked in Toruń in the second half of 18<sup>th</sup> century. 2016-12-01T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Sztuka i Kultura Późnobarokowy sobór św. Mikołaja w Sankt Petersburgu, dzieło Sawwy Iwanowicza Czewakińskiego na styku epok 2018-10-23T09:50:22+02:00 Przemysław Waszak The aim of the article is to allow for a closer look at the architecture of St. Nicolas Cathedral of Saint Petersburg build in 1753-1762, and its place in the history of art. It is the most important and best-preserved artistic achievement of the Russian architect Savva Chevakinsky, as well as a glorious example of Elizabethan baroque style. The maker of the cathedral boasts a rich and versatile project output. He then educated subsequent artists significant to the history of architecture. Chevakinsky possessed deep and comprehensive preparation, enabling him to accept miscellaneous commission orders. In his most important masterpiece the architect included references to Old Russian architecture and interestingly interpreted artistic motifs used in leading contemporary European architecture. The artist experienced an abrupt change of the operative style, from baroque to classicism. His decision to withdraw from artistic life was obviously premature. The article depicts that exciting historic figure through the prism of his architectonic achievements, the people he encountered over his lifespan as well as his own vicissitudes of life. Saint Petersburg’s architecture of the Middle of 18th century reflected a shift in both stylistic periods as well as the cultural and aesthetic approach of the ruling elites of the time. 2016-12-01T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Sztuka i Kultura „Got do Arkadii potrzebny”. Rozważania o nurcie neogotyckim w polskiej architekturze doby klasycyzmu 2018-10-23T09:50:22+02:00 Ryszard Mączyński <p>The article takes up the subject of the popularization of neo-gothic In Poland by performing a review of the artistic achievements in the field over the period of 1780–1830. The period in view may be divided into three basic phases, conventionally labeled: <em>Picturesque Exotic</em> in the years 1780–1800, <em>Search for the Gothic</em> in 1800–1815 and <em>Recognized neo-gothic</em> in 1815–1830.</p><p>It must be clearly stated – albeit against widespread judgments – that talking of the neo-gothic trend in reference to the ruling period of King Stanislaw August has no explanation whatsoever. The buildings emerging at that time resulted from the quest for the exotic rather than from Gothic stylistics. Even its allegedly most prominent example, Stanislaw Poniatowski’s palace in Korsun, was a building of this kind, Moorish in the thought of its progenitor. The status of the first neo-gothic object should be attributed to Arcadia’s ‘Got’, constructed at the end of the first above-mentioned phase. This is due to the fact that the gazebo was conceived as the result of the observation of genuine features of gothic vernacular architecture one could access in Poland. It is imperative to believe that a building so distinct among its contemporaries was mostly the effect of the workings of the analytic sense of observation of Aleksander Orlowski, a drawing artist unconstrained by the rules once put forward by Vitruvius. The sketches made by him were without doubt creative ideas which later simply turned into architectonic drawings in the hands of Szymon Bogumil Zug.</p><p>Harsh Times in the beginning of 19th century brought about a significant growth in the demand for artistic works maintained in gothic style. They were now connected not so much to picturesqueness as to history, which led the path towards its permanent association with the rapidly emerging cult of the past and its tradition, dictated by Poland’s loss of independence and its division between the neighbouring countries. The new approach found its fruition in such buildings as the Gothic House in Puławy, the Palace in Radziejowice, as well as – though in a slightly different context – the costumes worn by the Potocki’s Palace in Wilanów and The Lubomirski’s Palace in Łańcut. The majority of Gothic projects of the time were prepared by the architect Chrystian Piotr Aigner. That fifteen-year period also brought about the first discernible efforts to educate architects in the area of old forms, which is revealed at least in the preserved drawings of Wojciech Jaszczołd.</p><p>Such education, based increasingly on the imported illustrated publishings, escalated in the constitutional period of the Kingdom of Poland, particularly due to the fact that the fifteen years, abounding in political peace and economic prosperity, favoured the undertaking of building tasks. Authored by Henryk Marconi palace-monument of Dowspuda, where the implementation of traditional decorum formula connected neo-gothic stylistics with a rich content programme, thus glorifying the history of both Polish and Lithuanian nations as well as that of Pac family. Another work meriting distinction, although never actually realized, was a project by Hilary Szpilowski concerning the transformation of the facade of John Baptist's Cathedral in Warsaw. Incidentally, it was just Szpilowski who most willingly and apparently out of his own initiative experimented with gothic stylistics.</p><p>The statements of Marconi – just like Chrystian Piotr Aigner's or Sebastian Sierakowski's – prove that the architectural theory and practice were completely divergent. The instilled conviction of perfection achieved in construction by ancient civilizations, fortified by the Vitruvius treatise followed by his successors of Italian renaissance caused a situation in which the rules formulated by them were treated like holy and unassailable truths. The implacable attitude of architects placed gothic in the light of 'weirdness', with no attention paid to the distinct - and how perfect - an architectonic system. In the period embraced in the present discourse all the mentioned architects were sworn classicists. Such ideas, even orthodox at times, are revealed in every single recorded utterance of the architects. All of them (perhaps with the exception of Szpilowski) designed neo-gothic works so to say against their own liking and the rules their followed.</p><p>Thus, it must be clearly stated that neo-gothic would not surely come into being in Poland torn between its occupants had it not been for the commissioning parts, investors conscious of their demands. If the research on historic architecture repeatedly raises doubts on the role of the founder in the ultimate shape of the project prepared by an architect, this case leaves no room for uncertainty. All the architects had to comply with the will of the commissioners. Aigner had no choice if his principal Stanislaw Kostka Potocki longed for neo-gothic buildings. Much like Marconi, who in order to fulfill the demands of Ludwik Michał Paca had to go through a rapid self-education in the realm of gothic forms he was previously unfamiliar with. Such a clearly tangible and decisive will of investors, unprecedented in the history of Polish art, bestowed them with a key role. Both those mentioned – Potocki and Pac – travelled to England, whence they brought back their interest in new forms and their courage to implement them.</p>Among the founders there were (and even outnumbered men) some enlightened ladies: Izabela Branicka of Poniatowski, Izabela Czartoryska of Flemming, Izabela Lubomirska of Czartoryski, Helena Radziwiłłowa of Przeździecki or Anna Potocka of Tyszkiewicz. In their case, the causative factor was certainly literature in which medieval castles worked as a scenery for stories. So bishop Ignacy Krasicki in his 1784 satire may well have made fun on the 'fashionable wives' and their 'new masterpieces of craftsmanship and architecture', and yet, had it not been just for them - sensitive to all the novelties arriving from the 'wide world', wanting to keep up with literary and social fashions and at the same time willing to devote large funds to the accomplishment of their dreams - perhaps we would not have experienced neo-gothic at all. For it is certain that without their strong pressure professional architects, clinging so tightly to classicism sanctioned with ancient authority, would not have followed suit. 2016-12-01T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Sztuka i Kultura Empirowe tapety z pałacu w Walewicach 2018-10-23T09:50:22+02:00 Monika Stecyk In one of the rooms of the Walewice palace there are preserved panoramic wallpapers presenting antiquated genre scenes. The present text concerns research issues connected with the above mentioned wall coverings. The article was divided in three parts - the first concerns the provenance, the second presents an iconographic analysis and the last one describes differences between wallpapers from the same cycle, located in different areas of the world. An attempt was made to determine the allegoric function, to interpret the musical, erotic motive as well as to analyze the symbols contained in the depicted composition. The topics raised in the article were completed by means of formal, iconographic and comparative analysis. 2016-12-01T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Sztuka i Kultura Dni ciepłe i dni deszczowe. Przyczynek do studiów nad tematem: emigracja w świetle wypowiedzi artystów 2018-10-23T09:50:22+02:00 Anna Rudek-Śmiechowska <p>The topic of artistic emigration has been elaborated by scientists for years, examined mainly in monographic terms (artistic output or the position the artist managed to achieve on a given market). Although the studies concerning Polish artistic emigration are decentralized, singular and still minimum-scale, it is worth turning attention to numerous achievements in the field.</p><p>One very interesting aspect of that sea of motives seems to lie in the utterances of artists working outside Poland. Life history of specific individuals analyzed on the basis of interviews as well as how they have spent their lives and what they have managed to achieve, necessarily including their own attitude to it and the immigration itself - that is a direction of studies definitely worth delving into. The present article is an introduction to the analysis of the problem of artistic immigration approached on the basis of direct testimonies of artists.</p><p>In the text, apart from a systematic presentation of the state of research on Polish artistic immigration (with special attention paid to the USA, France and Great Britain), there is an outline of four chosen areas of immigration life: assimilation, technical and creative possibilities, Polish motives abroad, and loneliness. Moreover, there is a brief definition of 'immigrant artist' and certain suggested substitutions such as 'address' or 'universalism'.</p>The topic of immigration in the take of artists was presented on selected examples (including: Michał Batory, Władysław Teodor Benda, Jan Lebenstein, Adam Niklewicz, Józef Czapski, Piotr Kamler) by means of biographical facts and personal opinions. 2016-12-01T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Sztuka i Kultura Witold Urbanowicz. Polski pallotyn-artysta w Paryżu 2018-10-23T09:50:22+02:00 Jan Wiktor Sienkiewicz <p>The article is devoted to the selected aspects of the work of Witold Urbanowicz, a Pallottine monk, living and creating in France for the last couple of decades. His multi-threaded creation in the realm of painting, sculpture and stained glass is analyzed in the context of the first monographic exhibition (2 June – 30 September 2017, The District Museum in Suwałki (Muzeum Okregowe w Suwałkach))</p><p>Ever since his first years in Paris, where Urbanowicz came in 1972, the artist was one of the members of the editorial team of the Pallottine publishing house <em>Editions du Dialogue</em> as well as of lecture-discussion centre <em>Centre du Dialogue</em>, founded by reverend Josef Sadzik. The mentioned centre, until the Berlin Wall fell in 1989 was the main centre of Polish cultural life in France as well as the most important meeting point with politicians, researchers and artists.</p><p>Living in the heart of Paris, in the Gathering Home of Pallottines at 25 rue Surcouf, Witold Urbanowicz SAC met numerous people important in Polish culture, literature and art, both those who still worked in the post-war Poland as well as the ones who had no intention of returning to the post-Yalta Poland after 1945.</p>The article points out the clues and directions crucial to the understanding of Urbanowicz's artistic output, which did not appear out of the blue and without impulses and inspiration coming from the surrounding environment. This painter, sculptor and stained glass artist may not have always been aware of the fact that the shifts and evolution in both formal and stylistic aspects of his creative expression were influenced by the style of various artists living in France and attending the Pallottine Centre; those included Josef Czapski, Alina Szapocznikow or Jan Lebenstein, who in 1970 completed his stained-glass series 'Apocalypse', embellishing the lecture hall of the Centre, which doubles as a chapel in the Pallottine Home in Paris. 2016-12-01T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Sztuka i Kultura Sztuka i rytuały. Koji Kamoji i jego wizje nieskończoności 2018-10-23T09:50:22+02:00 Sebastian Dudzik <p>The present article is devoted to the selected works of Koji Kamoji completed between 2013 and 2015 and gathered in the collection of Waldemar Andzelm Gallery. The Japanese painter, sculptor, illustrator and author of spatial installations, living and creating in our country for the last fifty years, has created for the mentioned gallery an installation made up of three Torii gates as well as a cycle of 'white' paintings. Both those artistic undertakings perfectly represent both the specific nature of the collection itself as well as its Lublin collector's copyright idea of presentation of art, whose model assumes two complementary spaces: the sterile clean outer space, cultivating the idea of 'white cube' and the outer 'organic' space - organized by man and nature alike. The first one has become a natural place of 'existence' for paintings, graphics, drawings and small spatial forms gathered over the years. Kamoji's minimalist painting compositions find themselves perfectly in it. Complementary value for this microcosm is embodied by the 'art garden' - the outside space organized on the rooftop of an apartment building. It is accessed through the glazed part of the gallery interior, which constitutes a kind of link between two worlds. According to the original project natural elements - earth, plants, gravel and stones - were associated with appropriately located spatial artistic works: sculptures and constructions of architectonic-sculptural character by such artists as Kałucki, Berdyszak and Kamoji. In a word, artistic works demanding suitably large exhibition space were introduced into the structure of the garden. It must be stressed that each of the works was created especially for that 'art garden'. So to speak, the artists subdued to the superior idea of the gallery owner, thanks to which individual creations intertwine with the garden 'tissue' into an integral narration. What we have here is undoubtedly a <em>site-specific</em> gallery type.</p><p>Among the works designed specifically for this place, there is a set of three Japanese Torii gates authored by Koji Kamoji. The gates have been located around the garden in such a way so as each of them is placed at right angles to another, while the first and the last one, although parallel, do not form a single line. The distance which separates them is larger than the width of the central gate. This is responsible for the stone path running under the gates to break into the shape resembling an S. On the poles of each Torii Koji left inscriptions with his own name as well as the names of his tragically deceased friend Sasaki, his father (Torao) and his mother (Ayame).</p><p>The appearance of the unknown to our culture Torii gate system in the sky-high art garden of Waldemar Andzelm may come as a bit of a surprise, yet it is by no means unfounded. Art is a way of sanctifying space and by introducing into it a spiritual element subjects it to an irreversible change. The designer's own relation to art and its religious connotations does not remain meaningless. Searching for the picture of infinity identified also with the value of space-time in the works of Kamoji emerges directly out of his religious attitude. The ritual of creation has to him a certain sacral dimension. This applies both to the abstract description of reality and to his references to particular events or characters. Thus, his paintings often feature symbolic references to religious iconography (colour schemes, Zen garden implications). To Kamoji, the roof-located garden-gallery has become a symbolic place, and as such worthy of commemoration and prayer. The location of the two outer Torii, framing the space of the rooftop and the air space, directs our senses to emptiness and the infinity that comes with it. What is real, tangible, becomes but another reference point enabling us to grasp the immensity around us and inside of us at the same time. Internal spaces regulated by mutually perpendicular constructions also expose the emptiness. In contrast to temple-themed Torii they not only mark the distance but unilaterally close the space confined between them. The size of the gates, adjusted to human scale, reminds us of our corporeality and makes us realize our immersion in the void.</p><p>In a very specific way the Torii placed in the 'art garden' hint to the Japanese tradition of Far Eastern philosophy and its vision of reality. They are tangible and concrete in their expressive value. Kamoji's minimal, almost sterile, paintings present themselves completely otherwise; the artist clearly avoids any connotations with reality, to the point of not giving titles to them. The described set of paintings constitutes a kind of evolutionary consistency in heading towards the artist achieving the most balanced possible, yet at the same time the most synthetic visual recording, which remains an unfinished form. This is confirmed by modifications introduced after two years. The order structure of the discussed compositions, the materials used in their completion and the dominance of white in the chromatic scheme - all seem to indicate to their 'Far East' character. The artist himself made references to this in his utterance: ‘The work with small white pebbles - similarly to the way we play GO I place one after another. The difference is that in this “game” my “partner” is space-time/infinity. It can be said that the game consists in finding an appropriate location for every pebble within a determined area, so that the true aspect could be revealed for the space which I sometimes experience and which I desire to express. I think to myself and I am almost convinced that the process may resemble the creation of a Zen garden. Its most important part is to feel the reality of the space and to find oneself within it’<a title="" href="#_ftn1">[1]</a>.</p><p>The mystic context in Kamoji's utterance constitutes only an indication to the right direction, an opening of the right path. After a deeper reading we discover that behind those several pithy sentences hides a wealth of meanings and references, which deserve a deeper reflection. This may apply to each work separately or the process of creating a series as a whole, it may be directed to the artist himself, to his attitude towards reality or art, and eventually it can turn to complex relations in the triangle of artist - art work - beholder. The discourse carried out in the present text is meant to attempt to delineate and learn the area (without providing explanation to it), to establish its crucial accents and narrative intervals.</p><p>In the understanding of the pictures created by Kamoji, a huge role is played by an individual's realization of the ambiguity of emptiness. The infinity of its symbolic representation in white colour, which places us outside time and space, creates an unparalleled opportunity to define one's own world. Such a symbolic 'clean blackboard' can be filled with overlapping harmonized systems. On the visual plane tensions form between the white void and the physically determined shapes and props. The material components employed in the game form multiple cracks and gaps in the constellations created by themselves. Such understatements allow for one's own projection of the elements which are absent in the picture, left without a closure and not fully defined, and which is localized in the infinity of space and time.</p>In the creative output of this Japanese artist the infinity of the universe means its constant multifaceted constitution in time and space. Paradoxically, being a part of it we also contain some of its vastness. In the mental and philosophical approach the journey into the self is in reality an attempt to open oneself to the outside. According to this, atomic forces in the artist's compositions as well as the emptiness and distance dividing the individual Torii engraved with names, all constitute visual emanation of a liberating wandering.<div><br clear="all" /><hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div><p><a title="" href="#_ftnref1">[1]</a> Koji Kamoji, quotation from the artist’s correspondence with Waldemar Andzelm, 2013.</p></div></div> 2016-12-01T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Sztuka i Kultura Jak wykorzystywać okulografię w muzeum – przyczynek do dyskusji 2018-10-23T09:50:22+02:00 Łukasz Kędziora The article presents the results of eye tracking research conducted in The District Museum of Toruń (Muzeum Okregowe w Toruniu), within the exhibition entitled <em>Polish painting and sculpture from 1945-2010 in the collection of the District Museum of Toruń </em>(<em>Malarstwo i rzeźba polska od 1945 do 2010 roku w zbiorach Muzeum Okregowego w Toruniu</em>) in July 2016. Its aim was to register eyeball movements of eleven people whose task was to enjoy the exhibition without any time limits. The experiment was to provide the answer to the question about the usefulness of eye tracking to museology. The results turned out to be a valuable point of reference for discussion. Despite the fact that the paper constitutes a form of prolegomena to the topic, some noteworthy issues do indeed appear, including: the question of what our strategy of <em>viewing/looking at </em>paintings is, the problem of the viewer’s behaviour in a museum space, the usefulness of eye tracking in preparing expositions, catalogues and guides. The project was financed out of the budget of Toruń (President’s scholarship), conducted in cooperation with the District Museum of Toruń. 2016-12-01T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Sztuka i Kultura