Paedagogia Christiana <p><strong>Paedagogia Christiana </strong>(ISSN: 1505-6872; ISSN (online): 2451-1951) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published in an open access form, devoted to the issues of Christian pedagogy. It has been published in Torun (Poland), at the Nicolaus Copernicus University, since 1997 – as a semi-annual journal. Its aim is to promote philosophical and theological reflection on and the results of empirical research relating to Christian education and its role in supporting individual and social development. The journal publishes the results of research on experiences of the Christian upbringing, both in terms of the historical aspects and of the contemporary practice of churches, schools and religious movements and associations. Articles may be accepted which do not directly deal with the issue of Christian education, but instead talk about its humanistic and personalistic foundations. These would include issues related to what is broadly understood to be a religious education, as well as those concerned with the moral and social upbringing of children generally; all must be presented in terms of contemporary socio-cultural conditions. The journal is under the patronage of the Committee of Pedagogical Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences.</p><p><strong>W celu uzyskania informacji w języku polskim należy zmienić język w panelu po prawej stronie.</strong></p> Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu) en-US Paedagogia Christiana 1505-6872 Pedagogy and Personalism: Fundamental References of Education between Emergencies and Search for Meaning <p>Due to the problematic issues of the times into which it is projected, pedagogical reflection is at risk of losing its particularity as a theory called to preserve the perennial fundamentals of the person and education. Exerting the theoretical references of pedagogical anthropology inspired by personalism and its recovery in a hermeneutic perspective, the article outlines the specificity of pedagogy and its intrinsic relationship with the concept of the person. From the investigation emerges a ‘pedagogy of the person’ committed, especially in the contemporary context, to outlining the main ‘thematic nuclei’ to guide education: person, educability, interpretation and search for truth.</p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 15 35 Man–a Human Person in the Context of the Theory of Efficient and Purposeful Causality. Pedagogical Implications <p>This article aims to justify the thesis about the need to develop transcendent, transcendental and teleological pedagogy in connection with the anthropological basis, which is the theory of the person and causality. A man–a person – is an ontically substantial individual being, demanding an external cause, which is the Pure Act of Existence–Transcendens–Absolute. The personalistic pedagogics and the pedagogy of the person are therefore inherently related to transcendence. If the subject and object of education is a human person, then transcendental pedagogy must be a sine qua non condition for practising personalistic pedagogics and pedagogy of the person. Personalistic pedagogics and the pedagogy of the person are also intrinsically related to teleology. Efficient cause is coupled with purposeful cause. If there is an action of the Absolute which results in the existence of a man, a human person, then the Absolute, as the fullness of good, is the ultimate goal-motive and final cause of the man–human person. The teleological aspect in personalistic pedagogy and the pedagogy of the person means a particular aim and meaning orientation; full realisation of potentialities and tasks dormant in a unique being–a human person. The goal is not to achieve perfection, but to direct to your original source – the Transcendent–the Absolute–God.</p> Sławomir Chrost Copyright (c) 2021 Sławomir Chrost 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 47 1 37 57 10.12775/PCh.2021.002 Personalistic Pedagogy and Transcendence <p>In this paper I focus my attention on personalistic pedagogy, and its connection with transcendence, which was defined by Karol Wojtyła as ‘another name for the person’, because of its close link to the realisation of man as a person (Wojtyła, 1993, s. 230). In this regard, I focus my attention on references to transcendence in the studies of selected personalists. In its structure the article proposes reflection over the following problems: 1) the spiritual and transcending dimension of the bodily character of the human person; 2) the transcendence of the human person and the human person’s quest for values in the varieties of personalisms; 3) the ‘naturalisation’ of the ‘person’ category, and the openness to transcendence; 4) transcendence in historical, metaphysical and theological personalism; 5) education as a process between nature, culture and transcendence. According to Karol Wojtyła, when we talk about transcendence in relation to the human person we should take into account three dimensions: 1) transcendence in action; 2) transcendence towards another ‘I’ and 3) transcendence towards personal God. The biological life is never able to explain the spiritual life, and it is the spiritual life that gives meaning to the biological life, because the only sphere of the spirit reveals to us the value of the personal life and the meaning of human existence. This consequently leads to the need for separate reflection on the world and on man. In this sense, both in theoretical reflection and in practical action, the above-mentioned need is emphasised and points to respect for the ‘mystery of the child’, all the more acceptable in a climate of faith and openness to transcendence. Of course, the process of education and teaching can be approached superficially, in a shallow sense, in which we can remain closed to the possibilities and potential of human development. Epistemological distinctions connected to Maritain’s levels of cognition allow us to notice at least two types of teaching and education (flat and deep). A human being might stop (for various reasons, of course) at the lower levels of existence, and give up any aspirations to higher values, and to transcendence. Here we can seek help in explaining the part of staying open on transcendence of personalistic pedagogy.</p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-10-03 2021-10-03 47 1 59 81 Free to Seek and to Love the Creator: Fundamental Principle of Christian Education <p>The education of the person supposes the formation of his freedom. Maritain says that ‘man is born free but is called to conquer his freedom’. To educate is to help the person to be more perfectly free. However, in our times, freedom is often misunderstood and is reduced to simple choice. For this reason, in this article we will reflect, following the teachings of Karol Wojtyla, John Paul II and the Gaudium et Spes Constitution, on the most profound sense of freedom that should guide true educational action.</p> Luis Mariano Bártoli Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 83 103 10.12775/PCh.2021.004 Pedagogical Hope between Presence and Promise <p>What specific imprint does Christianity give to the philosophical elaboration of personalism? Initially, we introduce a reflective reread on Christian personalist thought in ongoing pedagogical discourse, in particular through the paradigmatic concept of hope. Returning to the traditional concept of ‘person’ and to its philosophical-ontological legacy, this essay discusses the dynamic of the teacher-student educational relationship. In this context, this paper attempts to show that the educator manifests his being a person of hope through his educative presence and respect for the promise.</p> Monica Crotti Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 105 118 10.12775/PCh.2021.005 Education and Alteration. Notes on Personalism, Alterity and Education in Dialogue with Michel de Certeau <p>This article tries to elaborate some insights from Michel de Certeau’s works on personalism, alterity and education. The aim is to add a poorly known voice to the contemporary debate around pedagogy and personalism. De Certeau’s original account of personhood, based on the movement of ‘alteration’ rather than on ‘identity’, is presented as original and useful to enrich the contemporary educational debate. The article firstly analyzes two texts where Certeau deals specifically with the role of alterity in educational contexts. The uncanny and ungraspable movement of ‘alteration’ will be shown as fundamental in the person’s formation. Secondly, it will be argued that such account of alterity is rooted in Certeau’s interpretation of the Christian tradition. Finally, it will be maintained the possibility of conceiving education itself as a process of ‘alteration’.</p> Federico Rovea Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 119 139 10.12775/PCh.2021.006 Anthropology and Pedagogy in the Field of Human Sciences. Problems and Challenges <p>Contemporary human sciences, practicing their subject of research and implementing the set goals and tasks, are more and more willing to establish interdisciplinary contacts using the scientific achievements of various disciplines supporting and expanding their own achievements and development opportunities. The beginning of our century was dominated by the ‘great revolution’ supported by science and its achievements, confronting man with even greater tasks to be solved and dilemmas of an unprecedented scale of complexity and problematic. Meanwhile, in the face of experiencing the insufficiency of knowledge about man, transhumanism promotes more and more projects to overcome human limitations to improve the human condition. This state of affairs presents science and education with challenges that will not be easy to face in the face of emerging dilemmas, and at the same time generates numerous key problems ad deliberandum.</p> Urszula Ostrowska Copyright (c) 2021 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 47 1 141 164 10.12775/PCh.2021.007 The Image of Child and Childhood in Personalistic Pedagogy <p>The article discusses the image of child and childhood in the contemporary pedagogy, based on philosophical, anthropological and ontological views of personalistic pedagogy. The personalistic pedagogy is grounded in the theory of human being (philosophical anthropology, philosophy of the human person). The person/man/child, understood as a value with such attributes as dignity, autonomy, uniqueness, integrity and rights, is a focus of attention for personalistic pedagogy. In terms of personalistic pedagogy, the child is perceived as the whole (complete) human person. The child, along with his/her childhood, is recognised as a subject/<br>/co-creator of self-development, growing up, continuous development of human nature, including both one’s own well-being and the common/public weal. Family as a natural living environment, plays a key role in the process of child-rearing. The article considers personalistic pedagogy as an important paradigm of research into the child and childhood.</p> Bożena Matyjas Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 165 187 10.12775/PCh.2021.008 Saving Humanity: Despair and Death as Pedagogical Challenges while Caring about Human Existence <p>The concepts analysed in this paper pertain to despair and death, since these are insufficiently present in pedagogical narrations. Despair and death, which accompany our existential experience throughout our lives, are most frequently treated one-sidedly, pejoratively, and presented as an expression of human evil. The thoughts of Paul Tillich, Viktor Frankl, Vittorino Andreoli and Krystian Lupa open a space for understanding despair and death as existential challenges a person needs to be capable of facing and should treat as valuable experience; an experience which creates an opportunity for a new dimension in our own appreciation of life.<br>For this reason, an existentially oriented education seems to enable serious thought about a person in the context of their entire life.</p> Julita Orzelska Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 189 207 10.12775/PCh.2021.009 Reflective Self-Consciousness and Activity of a Person <p>A human being is a person who experiences himself and acts as a person, therefore, he/she is conscious of him-/herself and that he/she acts consciously and responsibly. He/she is the maker of his/her actions and also has the ability to manage his/her actions, which shows his/her subjectivity and this is related to the structure of the person. The aim of the article is to present and analyse the<br>meaning and role of consciousness and self-consciousness in human psychosocial functioning and activity in the perspective of reflectivity. This problem is very complex and difficult to explain and describe clearly. Therefore, in the theoretical terms, I will display only selected aspects. First of all, I will present the concept and the essence of consciousness and self-consciousness of a person, paying attention to the typologisation and reflective form. Then, I will discuss one of the components of self-consciousness, which is the reflection, and show reflexivity as the core of postmodern human activity. In the pedagogical aspect, I will pay particular attention to shaping the need for reflectivity in the process of self-upbringing and discuss the selected techniques of work on own reflectiveness.</p> Marzena Chrost Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 209 228 10.12775/PCh.2021.010 Marisa Musaio (2020). Dalla distanza alla relazione. Pedagogia e relazione d’aiuto nell’emergenza. Milano-Udine: Mimesis, p. 198 <p>.</p> Pierpaolo Triani Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 279 282 10.12775/PCh.2021.013 Kamilla Frejusz. Wychowanie jako „dialog i spotkanie” w myśli pedagogicznej Janusza Tarnowskiego. Studium hermeneutyczno-krytyczne. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Collegium Bobolanum, 2020, ss. 424 <p>.</p> Jarosław Horowski Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 282 287 10.12775/PCh.2021.014 Jerzy Kostorz, Zdzisław Pytka, Piotr Bechta (red.). Katechizm dla średnio zaawansowanych. Opole: Wydawnictwo Świętego Krzyża, 2021 <p>.</p> Jan Kochel Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 288 290 10.12775/PCh.2021.015 Different Approach to the Concept of Subjectivity <p>My paper is a kind of commentary on Paedagogia Christiana 2/44 (2019): Religious Education and the Development of Subjectivity. I consider three meanings of the term ‘subjectivity’: 1) specifically human, constant ability/disposition/potentiality; 2) changing and dynamic actualisation of this potentiality; 3) an authority as a result of being human. I also mention descriptive and axionormative<br>functions of this concept in the context of religious education.</p> Agnieszka Salamucha Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 231 149 10.12775/PCh.2021.011 ‘Plurality-Empathetic’ Christians: Rethinking Religious Education in Poland <p>Presently, Poland appears to be a vital stronghold of Catholicism in the international arena. It appears to be a homogeneous society, that remains to be hermetically sealed and not available for people from other countries with different cultural and religious background (e.g. fear of Muslim immigrants from the Middle East). However, it does not change the fact that the processes taking place in the deepest structures of the Polish society, not only has a strong secularisation tendency, but also indicates the fact that pluralism is not a new or marginal phenomenon but rather increasing annually. From this perspective, this paper will highlight not<br>only a better and more effective operationalisation of the practical theology assumptions with regards to the socio-cultural and religious pluralism, but also it indicates the new ways of implementing interreligious education, within the formal religious<br>education in Poland. The paper presents a conceptual sketch of the changes in the religious education in Poland, in that religious education should meet the children and young people’s needs. Furthermore, religious education should be deeply anchored in their everyday life and shape the ‘pluralist-emphathetic’ young Christians and citizens who will support the religious dialogue and the functioning of the state, Europe and the world ‘without stakes’.</p> Mariusz Chrostkowski Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 251 275 10.12775/PCh.2021.012 Editorial <p>.</p> Sławomir Chrost Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 5 7 Od Redakcji <p>.</p> Sławomir Chrost Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 47 1 9 11