Folia Toruniensia <p>‘Folia Toruniensia’ is a scientific, peer-reviewed diamond open access journal. It is published by the Provincial Public Library – the Copernicus Library in Toruń in cooperation with the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń.</p> <p>The annual journal was funded in 2000 and since 16th vol. is published in the formula Open Access, non-exclusive license under <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 (CC BY-ND 4.0).</a></p> <p>The journal contains articles in the field of social communication and media. The mission of the journal is to serve as a forum where the best Polish and foreign scientist present their researches. The Editorial Team warmly invites the latter interested in cooperation.</p> <p>‘Folia Toruniensia’ is on the list of journals covered by the <a href="">Ministry of Science and Higher Education – 20 points.</a></p> <p>pISSN 1641–3792</p> <p>eISSN 2657-4837</p> <p>DOI</p> <p><a href=";journalId=24343">GICID 71.0000.1500.2559</a></p> <p><a href=";hl=en">Google Scholar Citations</a></p> <p><a href="">ICV 2019: 100</a></p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <h3>Abstract and index services:</h3> <ul> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="">ARIANTA – Polish Scientific and Professional Electronic Journals </a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BazHum</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href=""><span class="st">Central and Eastern European Online Library</span> (CEEOL)</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (CEJSH)</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href=";q=sc.general*c_0all_0eq.%2522folia%2Btoruniensia%2522*l_0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Centrum Otwartej Nauki (CeON)</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The European Reference Index for the Humanities and the Social Sciences (ERIH PLUS)</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href=";hl=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Herder-Institut: Literaturdatenbank (LitDok)</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus International Journals Master List</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Library &amp; Information Science Source (EBSCO)</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="">M<span lang="en-US">IAR: Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals</span></a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">One Belt, One Road Reference Source (EBSCO)</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">POL-index</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href=";IM=02&amp;TX=&amp;NU=01&amp;WI=FOLIAbTORUNIENSIA">Polish Bibliography of Bibliographies (PBB)</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="">Polish Scientific Bibliography (PSB)</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Osteuropa (ViFaOst)</a></p> </li> <li> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;"><a href=";qt=advanced&amp;dblist=638" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href=";IKT=8509&amp;SRT=LST_ty&amp;TRM=all+folia+toruniensia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Zeitschriftendatenbank (ZDB)</a></p> </li> </ul> en-US <p>Authors sign <a href="">the license agreement</a>, where authors have copyright but license exclusive rights in their article to the publisher. In this case authors have a range of rights, including:</p><ul><li>The right to share or reuse their article in the same ways permitted to third parties under <a href="" target="_blank">the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 (CC BY-ND 4.0) </a>license. Following it, the author can "copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms."</li><li>Authors retain patent, trademark and other intellectual property rights (including research data).</li><li>Authors receive proper attribution and credit for the published work.</li></ul> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><img src="/czasopisma/public/site/images/mbalcerek/Cc-by-nd_icon.svg_2.png" alt="" width="119" height="41" /></p><div data-canvas-width="489.33060800000015"> <div data-canvas-width="489.33060800000015"> </div><div data-canvas-width="489.33060800000015"><a href="">This is a <span class="myhelp" title="Can archive pre-print and post-print">RoMEO <strong>green</strong></span> journal.</a></div></div> (Mariusz Balcerek) (Grzegorz Kopcewicz) Thu, 17 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Accounts of events, lampoons and lies: the Madrid infosphere in 1598–1627 <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;">At the beginning of the 17th century in Madrid one deals with a specifically functioning infosphere that influences the formation of the first public opinion. The author describes the phenomena related to the acquisition, dissemination and commenting of information in the city space. In her analysis she uses literary works, dictionaries and chronicles, along with preserved documents of social life. The article shows in a cross-sectional way the nature of the changes taking place in the society of Madrid between the year 1598 - Philip III’s accession to the throne- and the year 1627, when Philip IV issued a regulation prohibiting the free circulation of informative publications, such as reports from events, letters, sermons, etc.</p> Katarzyna Setkowicz Copyright (c) 2020 Folia Toruniensia Sun, 13 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Librarians of university, court and city libraries in German lands in the years 1789-1871 and the access to book collections The 19<sup>th </sup> century brought numerous changes in political, social and economic life, which also left a mark upon libraries. This can be seen especially in the case of libraries that had been operating for a long time, serving both scientists and the so-called general public. Using the example of the German court, university and city libraries of 1789–1871, we will show how these changes influenced the condition of the access to the collections. Typical problems in this field included: short opening times of libraries, a narrow circle of users limited to the upper-class; limiting the time and number of books borrowed at one time, which was caused by a number of factors, including insufficient staff and / or financial resources. Until 1871, the condition of the access to collections was influenced by excessive individualism, a lack of cooperation, and a variety of organizational solutions in German libraries. The awareness of the shortcomings and limitations, as demonstrated by the next decades, paradoxically led to cooperation in this field. Zdzisław Gębołyś Copyright (c) 2020 Folia Toruniensia Mon, 14 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The issue of the Coppernicus-Verein für Wissenschaft und Kunst iconographic collections and the Städtisches Museum (City Museum) in Toruń The text concerns a group of photographs, currently in the Special Collections Department of the Provincial Public Library - Copernican Library in Toruń (WBP-KK), associated with the German scientific society (CoppernicusVerein für Wissenschaft und Kunst) operating in the city in the second half of the 19<sup>th</sup> century. The source analysis has allowed to state that the library today contains the remains of two collections related to the German association: the Coppernicus-Verein iconographic collection and the archives of monuments, established at the City Museum in Toruń (Städtisches Museum) in 1896. The article describes the above two groups of photographs, outlining the context of the creation of the photographic archives of monuments in German museums in the second half of the 19<sup>th</sup> century and at the turn of the 19<sup>th </sup> and 20<sup>th</sup> centuries. Kamila Kłudkiewicz Copyright (c) 2020 Folia Toruniensia Mon, 14 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Karaite communities: harnessing the multi-lingual linguistic strategies for nationalism <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;">The Karaites communities of former Polish – Lithuanian Commonwealth in the beginning of the 20th century started a discussion in their communal press on which language they should adopt as their communal or national language. This view remained important during the first half of 20th century. It was considered as a tool for social and cultural consolidation of the communities and as an important aspect of their social image in the eyes of Polish society. Karaite leaders tried several different strategies for establishment of national language, starting from traditional bilingualism (Hebrew – Turkic) to different combinations of Russian – Hebrew, Polish – Turkic and etc. These initiatives grew stronger after the World War 1, when ethnic nationalism was arising both in Karaite communities and in dominating Polish society. The analysis of these language strategies was done using a model language planning elaborated by Geoffrey Haig in Kurdish language in modern Turkey, under the politics of Kemal Ataturk (Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, 1881–1938). The article has highlighted these strategies, analyzed argumentation, and presented linguistic reforms implemented in the Karaite communities in the first half of the 20th century. It was argued that the social image of Karaites in the dominating society played an important role in decision making by Karaite leaders. It was also understood that language was not only an important aspect of Karaite cultural identity but also a tool for integration into dominating society.</p> Dovilė Troskovaitė Copyright (c) 2020 Folia Toruniensia Mon, 14 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Cookbooks for children in the USA in the second half of the 19th and 20th centuries – tendencies and development trends <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><strong><span style="font-weight: normal;">Thesis / Purpose: </span></strong>The aim of the article is to investigate the origins and development of cookbooks intentionally addressed to children published in the USA in the second half of the 19th and 20th centuries. <span lang="es-ES">The aim was to indicate specific types of these publications and to identify social and economic factors influencing their evolution.</span></p><p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><strong><span lang="es-ES"><span style="font-weight: normal;">Research method:</span></span></strong><span lang="es-ES">The source material for the analysis was obtained from the digital resources of cookbook collections in the public domain, such as Ann Hertzler Children's Cookbook &amp; Nutrition Literature Collection, Johnson &amp; Wales University Culinary Arts Museum and others. In total, several dozen copies issued in the USA in the years 1876-1998 and other artifacts belonging to the area of children's culinary culture in this geographical area were analyzed.</span></p><p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><strong><span lang="es-ES"><span style="font-weight: normal;">Results / Conclusions:</span></span></strong><span lang="es-ES">The history of cookbooks for children in the USA begins in 1876 and continues to this day. The genesis of the phenomenon is associated with the dissemination of Enlightenment ideas, especially the new model of upbringing and the psychosocial emancipation of the child along with the socio-economic changes, the expansion of the circle of readers, the emergence of a new group of buyers - middle-class children. Early American cookbooks for children took the form of literary culinary stories, the so-called cookstory or culinary story. They were used to teach girls to cook, they were a tool of socialization to act as a housewife. Since the beginning of the 20th</span><span lang="es-ES">century, we have been observing a dynamic development of new trends in these publications, such as verse cookbooks and brochures advertising well-known food brands, the so-called culinary emphemera. Cookbooks for boys appeared on the market in the mid-20th</span><span lang="es-ES">century. In the 1970s, there appeared guides aimed at adolescents promoting healthy lifestyle and diets (vegan and vegetarian), books related to the heroes of childhood readings and popular media icons for children. Nowadays, attention is drawn to the variety of formats and high editorial attractiveness of these publications and their strong relationship with the toy and media industry.</span></p> Anita Lidia Has-Tokarz Copyright (c) 2020 Folia Toruniensia Mon, 14 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Legends and lives of saints : Publications for children and youth in Poland in 1945-1949 <p>Thesis / Purpose: The aim of the article is to analyze the legends and biographies of saints for children published in Poland in the years 1945-1949. There are 19 items in the attached bibliography.</p><p>Research method: The material was analyzed from autopsy on the basis of the copies preserved in the National Library (registered in the Polish bibliography of the Official Print List in <em>Przewodnik Bibliograficzny</em>).</p><p>Results / Conclusions: Most of the items were published in Cracow and Warsaw in the years 1947-1948. Their authors were mostly well-known and respected secular writers, among whom Maria Kączkowska deserves special attention. Some texts had their pre-war editions. In legends and biographies, more than 50 people recognized by the Catholic Church as saints or dead were presented. Biographies, especially those of "holy children", were to constitute a role model for the young reader.</p> Grażyna Lewandowicz-Nosal Copyright (c) 2020 Folia Toruniensia Mon, 14 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Shaping e-book culture: analyzing the Internet message of companies operating on the book market <p>The work concerns part of the problem of digital culture. The research problem lies in the area of e-book culture (bibliology and information science). It was assumed that the semantic limits of e-book culture include both what has happened and resulted in the transformation of the book itself (relating to the book) and the presence of digital forms of books in society. The aim is to present a narrower issue - e-book culture - at the end of the second decade of the 21<sup>st</sup> century on the basis of the widely available internet content.</p><p>The websites of companies and institutions dealing with the introduction of e-books as a "product form of a book" (the definition of the National Library) on the market and into circulation were used. The individual websites were tracked in terms of their content, which is dispersed, and which for the purposes of the study was called Knowledge of E-Books (hereinafter: WoE-B). The adopted method of researching the content of WoE-B allowed to evaluate this material as an important source that should be taken into account as a kind of contribution to the formation of digital book culture in society.</p><p>The conducted analyzes showed that the form of the participation of the market sector in shaping the culture of e-books constituted the transfer of specific knowledge devoted to this form of the book (aspects: addressee, requirements, ownership, properties, validity / advantages). A specific reconstruction of the e-book recipient's profile was made. Three directions of shaping e-book culture were established: 1) the use of e-book technology, 2) the use of e-book technology products, 3) the advantages of e-book technology.</p> Stanisława Kurek-Kokocińska Copyright (c) 2020 Folia Toruniensia Mon, 14 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Library and Information Science educator: nurturing for strategic learning experiences <p style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 108%;">Aim: The aim of this article was to highlight the experiences of Library and Information Science (LIS) educators in integrating strategies in library schools, examine the outcome of the experiences, identify the lessons learnt and ascertain the implications of the findings.</p><p style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 108%;">Methods: This was a report of LIS Educators in Nigerian Library Schools. The activities were carried out in Madonna University, Nigeria and Ignatius Aguru University of Education, Rumuorlumeni, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Fifteen LIS educators were involved in the activity. The method used were dialogues, focal group discussion, talk shows and presentation. The strategies were implemented from 2017 to 2019.</p><p style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 108%;">Results: It was shown that LIS educators incorporated world book day, world literacy day, world language day, human rights anniversary, IFLA global vision, motivational and ICT trainings into the curriculum. The streaming and initiating of these activities stimulated interest in career charting of students as well as attracted more recognition and acknowledgement to LIS departments. The lessons learnt included craving from students and colleagues for more engaging programs, admiration from other departments and awareness creation for inclusive learning program.</p><p style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 108%;">Conclusion: There is need to re-strategize the trainings and curriculum in library schools in order to remain relevant with global trends in information service. Therefore, updating the trainings and LIS education are very important in building vibrant career ready professionals. LIS is a serious business and the educators must keep the motor of change moving with stimulating dialogue and practices. This will help to produce professionals who will fit into the information society with career readiness.</p> Ngozi Osuchukwu, Victor Wagwu Copyright (c) 2020 Folia Toruniensia Mon, 14 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 International Scientific Conference in Katowice: “The future of research in the light of copyright, ethical codes of scientists and research quality assessment criteria” <p>At the turn of January and February, an international scientific conference was held in Katowice at the Faculty of Law and Administration of the University of Silesia. It was entitled “The future of research in the light of copyright, ethical codes of scientists and research quality assessment criteria.” The first day of the conference abounded in papers presented by speakers from Katowice, Cracow and Warsaw, devoted to the authorship of scientific works in the social sciences and humanities and the attribution of the authorship of works in the field of sciences. During the lectures and presentations, the participants had the opportunity to reflect on the value of copyright for scientists. Does copyright really serve the creator or not? The relationship between development in the world and the number of patents and the level of copyright protection in different countries (also the difference between more and less developed countries that appears in this context) was discussed. The second day of the conference was devoted to the issues of research quality assessment in the context of the reform of higher education. Guests from Denmark, Norway, France, the Netherlands and the United States - during their speeches and then during a moderated discussion - shared their countries' experience in the field of the commercialization of science, the organization of research and the impact of the policy of scoring scientific works on the development of social sciences and humanities.</p> Hanna Gaweł Copyright (c) 2020 Folia Toruniensia Tue, 15 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Old prints and veterinary manuscripts in the collections of the University Library in Toruń. Catalogue <p>The article is the result of the work connected with the preparation of an occasional exhibition related to the opening of the Veterinary Center at Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń in the 2018-2019 academic year. At that time, a rich collection of old prints on veterinary issues, which became the basis for the creation of the presented catalogue, was exhibited. The author collects not only titles strictly related to the treatment of animals, but also their breeding and care. The collections of the University Library in Toruń turned out to be quite numerous. Especially the Enlightenment veterinary literature presents a high scientific level, rich in the works of the founders and professors of famous French, German and Polish veterinary schools of the 18<sup>th</sup> century, e.g. Claude Bourgelat, Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben, Jakub Gottlieb Wolstein or Krzysztof Kluk. The introductory part of the article discusses the copies that are most valuable in terms of science and provenance. The author also presents hippatrical collections from the library of the von Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen princes from the palace in Koszęcin. This provenance along with the fragments of the library of the Potulicki family and Greek-language scholar Karl Otto Rehdantzian have been so far unknown.</p> Julia Możdżeń Copyright (c) 2020 Folia Toruniensia Tue, 15 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Information management. Series: SCIENCE - DIDACTICS - PRACTICE, ed. W. Babik, Warsaw SBP Publishing House, Warsaw 2019, pp. 668, ISBN 978-83-65741-47-9 <p>The author discusses the monograph <em>Information Management</em> edited by Wiesław Babik. The reviewer emphasizes the importance of the publication presenting the comprehensive issue of information management. In addition, she indicates the advantages of the monograph based on the interdisciplinary cooperation of researchers in the field of communication and media science. The author also draws attention to current considerations about information management in the modern era of digitization, globalization of communication and information transfer processes.</p> Hanna Gaweł Copyright (c) 2020 Folia Toruniensia Tue, 15 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100