Ekonomia i Prawo. Economics and Law https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP <p class="text3"><strong><em><span class="italic_black">Ekonomia i Prawo. Economics and Law</span></em></strong> is a quarterly double-blind peer-reviewed journal published in print and online on an open access basis. The aim of the journal is to create a solid plane of communication between economists and lawyers in the process of influencing the shape of the state’s institutional order. The topics of scientific articles published in the journal focuses on theoretical and empirical research in the following disciplines:</p> <ul id="u92015-12" class="list0 nls-None"> <li class="text3">Economics (development economics, economic history, financial economics, institutional economics, international economics, labour economics, mathematical economics, monetary economics, non-market economics, public finance, welfare economics);</li> <li class="text3">Finances;</li> <li class="text3">Law.</li> </ul> en-US eip@economicsandlaw.pl (Ilona Pietryka) greg@umk.pl (Grzegorz Kopcewicz) Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0200 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Performance measurement and evaluation of the property in regional cities in Slovakia and the Czech Republic in the context of their local economic development: comparative study https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40492 <p>Motivation: Property is an important part of the economic development of local governments. Not only from the point of view of its use for providing services to inhabitants, but also from the point of view of generating income for local budgets. However, the evaluation of its use is very complicated, since cities first of all use it for non-market purposes and only then for market purposes. There are very few studies devoted to the evaluation of property utilization at the level of local self-governments.</p> <p>Aim: The financing of cities in Slovakia and Czechia is strongly linked to the state budget, and a large part of these financial resources are earmarked. One of the possibilities for obtaining additional financial resources, as well as increasing their competitiveness, is the efficient use of municipal property. The aim of this paper is to look at the competitiveness of regional cities by evaluating the use of property in Slovakia and Czechia, in the time series 2000–2019 and based on selected indicators.</p> <p>Results: The results of the analysis showed significant differences between regional cities in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Prague is overcapitalized, whereas Bratislava is undercapitalized in selected indicators. At the same time, in the Czech Republic we observe the significant dominance of large cities, while the results of the others cities do not show significant differences. Property as its own economic resource is becoming an important part of the competitiveness of cities. Municipal property consists of things owned by the municipality, which are primarily immovable (land, buildings, individual components of the technical infrastructure), and it is this property that significantly affects the development of cities. The research method represents a new way to evaluate the efficiency of municipal property. Municipal property, which is made up primarily of long-term intangible property, represents an important element of the competitiveness of cities, because cities can use it as a tool to attract investors to the territory, thereby increasing the overall socio-economic development of the territory.</p> Marek Dvořák, Roman Vavrek, Viera Papcunová, Jarmila Mižičková Copyright (c) 2022 Marek Dvořák, Roman Vavrek, Viera Papcunová, Jarmila Mižičková https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40492 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Application of the public-private partnership formula in thermomodernization projects of public buildings in Poland in the years 2009–2020 https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40462 <p>Motivation: For over ten years, Poland has observed a systematic use of the public-private partnership (PPP) formula in implementation of investment projects. Local government units are particularly active in this area. One of the self-government’s own tasks is the management of municipal property, including public utility buildings. The implementation of such tasks, in accordance with the European Commission’s recommendations, should be conducted in cooperation between a local government unit and a private entity under a public-private partnership.</p> <p>Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the public-private partnership market in Poland in the context of the implementation of thermomodernization projects of local government public facilities in the years 2009–2020.</p> <p>Results: The market in Poland is generally flattened, as more than 90 per cent of launched projects fall into the local government sector. It is the local authorities that initiate intersectoral cooperation based on the PPP formula. Knowing their local communities, they carry out tasks that meet their needs on the one hand, and respond to climate and energy challenges on the other. This is evidenced by a growing number of projects</p> Dagmara Hajdys Copyright (c) 2022 Dagmara Hajdys https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40462 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Risk perception in practice of Polish MNCs in Kazakhstan during COVID-19 time https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40343 <p>Motivation: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a major crisis in global economy. The year 2020 will be remembered in the history of global economy as the year of a massive supply and demand shock, and, consequently, a slump in economic growth in most countries. The effects of the pandemic will be felt to varying degrees by the majority of the world’s economic entities. One such effect is the radical decrease in global foreign direct investment (FDI). It is hard to assess now how heavily the pandemic will influence the long-term FDI trends. The perception of the pandemic risk is, however, likely to heighten. This article deals with foreign direct investment risks, and more specifically, with the pandemic risk seen as one of natural risks in COVID-19-related contexts.</p> <p>Aim: The article aims to identify how the enterprises with Polish capital in Kazakhstan perceive the pandemic risk in comparison with other FDI risks. The authors of this paper were co-investigators on a scientific research project concerning FDI in Kazakhstan as exemplified by the investment intensity of Polish enterprises. The project was carried out from 2019 to 2021, i.e., when the pandemic started and during its course. The research concept was, however, created before there were any signs of the pandemic. Therefore, the research questions regarding FDI risk in Kazakhstan were not to any extent inspired by this occurrence. Nevertheless, the question about the pandemic risk was included in the research tool. Thus, the perception of this risk became the subject of research. The findings of partial research that are presented in this article are original in nature, because the assessments constituting their basis were formulated at a time when Kazakhstan, like other countries around the world, struggled with the pandemic and when its effects were unknown.</p> <p>Results: According to the enterprises with Polish capital in Kazakhstan, the main areas of risk entailed in their operation in this country were, most importantly, the risks of the investment country and global risks. Local currency exchange risk ranked 1<sup>st</sup>; as many as 70% of respondents said that this risk perception was high. This was followed by global economic events (e.g. depression), performance risks (e.g. product price, transfer risks, the price of capital) and government policy risks (e.g. tax reforms, monetary reforms, price controls, trade restrictions, nationalisation, government regulation, barriers to earnings repatriation). The 5<sup>th</sup> most distinctly perceived risk by the studied enterprises was global social events risks, including the pandemic risk. 40% of the surveyed entities defined this risk perception as high, and 30% each as medium and small. The fact that the pandemic risk ranked 5<sup>th</sup> among other FDI risk components in Kazakhstan indicates its great significance to the enterprises operating there at an early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, i.e., when the level of uncertainty caused by the pandemic in terms of both its economic and its social effects was very high.</p> Małgorzata Jaworek, Włodzimierz Karaszewski, Magdalena Kuczmarska Copyright (c) 2022 Małgorzata Jaworek, Włodzimierz Karaszewski, Magdalena Kuczmarska https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40343 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0200 ICTs in the banking sector in the times of the COVID-19 pandemic: the customer’s perspective https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40344 <p>Motivation: The digitization of financial services has brought a noticeable decline in the importance of branch banking for customers wanting to contact their bank or receive financial services. The lack of personal contact with bank employees has become particularly significant during the pandemic, with remote modes of communication reducing the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2.</p> <p>Aim: The present study applies the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and binomial logit model to determine the impact of the digitization of bank services and the COVID-19 pandemic on retail customers’ needs for branch banking.</p> <p>Results: The empirical research conducted demonstrated that the factors significantly positively influencing the need to use financial services provided by staff in bank branches were respondent experience in using bank advisory services and fear of interpersonal contact in the pandemic context. Meanwhile, variables with a negative effect were the use of the electronic banking platform, attitudes towards the use of the artificial intelligence technology in the banking sector, and perceptions of the advantages of remote communication with institutions in the pandemic context.</p> Dariusz Piotrowski Copyright (c) 2022 Dariusz Piotrowski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40344 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0200 VAT gap determinants in the European Union and Poland https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40345 <p>Motivation: VAT revenues constitute a significant part of the budgets of EU countries and Poland. Both the EU and Poland are taking steps to reduce the VAT gap. To define the areas influencing the size of the VAT gap, its determinants should be indicated.</p> <p>Aim: The study aims to identify the determinants of the VAT gap in the EU and Poland. By comparing the impact of individual determinants on the VAT Gap in the EU and Poland, it will be possible to identify common factors shaping the VAT gap in the EU and Poland.</p> <p>Results: Based on the econometric study, it was indicated that growth, trade, consumption, and corruption are significant determinants of the VAT gap in the EU and Poland. However, it has been shown that the impact of consumption and corruption on the VAT gap in Poland is different from that in the EU.</p> Anna Pluskota Copyright (c) 2022 Anna Pluskota https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40345 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The use of selected tax tools for the implementation of pro-ecological goals in Poland on the example of cities with poviat rights https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40346 <p>Motivation: Environmental protection requires action at various levels. Local governments managing the smallest territorially administrative units have been equipped with a number of competences enabling a positive impact on the condition of local natural resources. Their powers include, inter alia, determining the rates of certain taxes along with the possibility of applying preferences that may be aimed at stimulating environment-friendly behavior and the implementation of various pro-ecological goals. Therefore, a research problem can be raised regarding the use of this type of instruments by municipalities to improve the condition of the natural environment.</p> <p>Aim: The purpose of the article is to investigate whether and to what extent local governments managing communes in Poland use their powers in the scope of applying reliefs and exemptions in local taxes to initiate activities involving the protection and proper use of environmental resources. The study covered 63 cities operating with poviat rights, and the analysis covered the resolutions adopted by the city councils of these units in the years 2019–2021.</p> <p>Results: As a result of the research, it was found that the local governments of the largest Polish cities rarely applied exemptions from property tax and transport means tax exemptions due to pro-ecological activities undertaken by taxpayers. Local government officials were much more willing to use the statutory right to apply different tax rates on means of transport depending on the type of drive. In the group of the 10 largest urban centers, only in one case there is no lower tax rate for 2021, and thus no relief for owners of vehicles with a drive that meets certain emission limits or electric power. Importantly, the reliefs were most often accompanied by the reduction or maintenance of the real tax rates at a stable level.</p> Jacek Witkowski Copyright (c) 2022 Jacek Witkowski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40346 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Statistical methods as a tool to identify bid-rigging: the case of local authorities https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40420 <p>Motivation: Disclosure of bid-rigging is not a trivial process. The main difficulty lies in the secrecy of such an agreement. Also, the signals of collusion can be ambiguous. It, therefore, appears that only a tiny percentage of such collusive agreements are disclosed. Of the disclosed conspiracies, a significant proportion was identified due to information from contracting authorities. We have a catalogue of indicators for collusion, and statistical methods are particularly effective. What is the role of statistical methods in revealing bid-rigging? What determines their use in practice? In order to answer these questions, a questionnaire study was carried out. The survey covered local government units&nbsp;— the dominating group of contracting authorities.</p> <p>Aim: The research aimed to identify the factors characterising local government units that foster statistical methods as a standard bid evaluation tool.</p> <p>Results: The survey results indicate that using a statistical method as standard practice in the process of bids evaluation is related to the level of staff’s professional expertise, the size of the procurement team and the size of the local authority. Concerning the risk of collusive bidding, respondents recognise it but believe that it does not significantly impact the achievement of procurement policy objectives. Despite a sense of responsibility for combating bid-rigging, respondents are reluctant to use statistical methods on a daily basis.</p> Łukasz Ziarko Copyright (c) 2022 Łukasz Ziarko https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/EiP/article/view/40420 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0200