Visitors’ opinions on the environmental protection in Shumen Plateau Nature Park from the negative anthropogenic impact of a nearby city, Bulgaria
Keywordsvisitor survey, pollution, Peri-urban Nature Park, green area, anthropogenic impact, mass media
AbstractParks are essential for the preservation and protection of wildlife, but human activity affects their functions. The objective of our study was to investigate visitors’ opinions on the environmental protection of Shumen Plateau Nature Park from the negative anthropogenic impact of a nearby city. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among summer visitors. The standardized Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the correlation between items questioned and demographic variables. The highest percentage of the informants were of the opinion that the Shumen Plateau Nature Park is a relatively clean place and a much cleaner green area compared to the parks in Shumen. According to most visitors, the high level of fine particulate matter in the air in the town of Shumen does not affect organisms that inhabit the Nature Park, soil and groundwater. The main pollutant of the Shumen Plateau Nature Park is garbage left by park visitors (88.97%), landfills in the park area (46.32%) and car traffic in the nearby town of Shumen (30.88%). The factor that has the most adverse effect on the biodiversity and ecological balance in the Nature Park are the visitors. Both visitors and inhabitants of the town of Shumen should be more responsible for the environment and the conservation of the Shumen Plateau Nature Park as a clean green area. Park visitors do not consider the town of Shumen as a source of negative anthropogenic impact on the Shumen Plateau Nature Park, but our previous studies show the opposite. This indicates a gap in the relationship between the scientific community and society that needs to be addressed. Close cooperation between scientists and journalists can contribute to the visitors’ opinions on the environmental protection in nature parks from the negative anthropogenic impact of nearby cities and towns and improve the effectiveness of the mass media.
Burns J., Boogaard H., Polus S., Pfadenhauer L.M., Rohwer A.C., van Erp A.M., Turley R. & Rehfuess E.A., 2020, Interventions to reduce ambient air pollution and their effects on health: An abridged Cochrane systematic review. Environment International 135, 105400: 1-22.
Chaparro L. & Terradas J., 2009, Ecological services of an urban forest in Barcelona, Barcelona: Centre de recerca ecoligica i aplicacions forestals, Universtitat Untonma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 109 pp.
Chiabai A., Quiroga S., Martinez-Juarez P., Suárez C., García de Jalón S. & Taylor T., 2020, Exposure to green areas: Modelling health benefits in a context of study heterogeneity. Ecological Economics 167, 106401: 1-10.
Daim M.S., Bakri A.F., Kamarudin H. & Zakaria S.A., 2012, Being Neighbor to a National Park: Are We Ready for Community Participation? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 36: 211-220.
Decisions of the Council of Ministers No 177, 03.08.2019. [in Bulgarian]
Escobedo F. & Nowak D., 2009, Spatial heterogeneity and air pollution removal by an urban forest. Landscape and Urban Planning 90: 102-110.
Gidlow C.J., Ellis N.J. & Bostock S., 2012, Development of the Neighbourhood Green Space Tool (NGST). Landscape and Urban Planning 106(4): 347-358.
Gomez-Baggethun E., Gren A., Barton D.N., Langemeyer J., McPhearson T., O’Farrell P., Andersson E., Hamstead Z. & Kremer P., 2013, Urban Ecosystem Services, [in:] T. Elmqvist, M. Fragkias, J. Goodness, B. Güneralp, P.J. Marcotullio, R.I. McDonald, S. Parnell, M. Schewenius, M. Sendstad, K. C. Seto, C. Wilkinson (eds), Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities - A Global Assessment. Springer, New York, pp. 175-251.
Grantz D.A., Garner J.H.B. & Johnson D.W., 2003, Ecological effects of particulate matter. Environment International 29(2-3): 213-239.
Grigorova Z., 2016, New Opportunities for Ecotourism Development in the Nature Park “Shumensko Plato”. New Knowledge Journal of Science 5(1): 17-30.
Henderson L. & Hilton S., 2018, The media and public health: where next for critical analysis? Critical Public Health 28(4): 373-376.
Hughey S.M., Walsemann K.M., Child S., Powers A., Reed J.A. & Kaczynski A.T., 2016, Using an environmental justice approach to examine the relationships between park availability and quality indicators, neighborhood disadvantage, and racial/ethnic
Jenkins G., Yuen H., Rose E., Maher A., Gregory K. & Cotton M., 2015, Disparities in quality of park play spaces between two cities with diverse income and race/ethnicity composition: A pilot study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12(7): 8009-8022.
Jiang W., Wang Y., Tsou M.H. & Fu X., 2015, Using Social Media to Detect Outdoor Air Pollution and Monitor Air Quality Index (AQI): A Geo-Targeted Spatiotemporal Analysis Framework with Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter). PLoS ONE 10(10): e0141185.
Jones K.R., Venter O., Fuller R.A., Allan J.R., Maxwell S.L., Negret P.J. & Watson J.E.M., 2018, One-third of global protected land is under intense human pressure. Science 360: 788-791.
Kaplan A.M. & Haenlein M., 2010, Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons 53(1): 59-68.
Karanth K. & DeFries R., 2010, Nature-based tourism in Indian protected areas: New challenges for park management. Conservation Letters 4: 137-149.
Koleva V., Dragoeva A., Koynova T. & Natchev N., 2018a, Soil pollution screening using physico-chemical and cytogenetic approaches: А case study of a Bulgarian suburban Nature Park. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 27(3): 1105-1112.
Koleva V., Koynova T., Dragoeva A. & Natchev N., 2018b, Еlemental composition of surface soils in Naturе Park Shumen Plateau and Shumen City, Bulgaria. Acta Scientifica Naturalis 5(2): 68-76.
Koynova T., 2018, Comparative analysis of Nature Park Shumen Plateau and Shumen City Park as green spaces. Acta Scientifica Naturalis 5(2): 57-67.
Koynova T., Dragoeva A. & Koleva V., 2018, Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of melting snow – A case study of Shumen region, Bulgaria. CBU International Conference on Innovations in Science and Education, Prague, Czech Republic 6: 1121-1123.
Koynova T., Koleva V., Dragoeva A. & Natchev N., 2019, Peri-urban National Parks as Green Spaces for Recreation: A Case Study of Nature Park Shumen Plateau. International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development 10(1): 46-58.
Leung Y., Spenceley A., Hvenegaard G. & Buckley R., 2018, Tourism and visitor management in protected areas: Guidelines for sustainability. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 27, IUCN Gland, Switzerland, 120 pp.
Li F., Wang R., Paulussen J. & Liu X., 2005, Comprehensive concept planning of urban greening based on ecological principles: a case study in Beijing, China. Landscape and Urban Planning 72(4): 325-336.
Lovett G.M., Tear T.H., Evers D.C., Findlay S.E.G., Cosby B.J., Dunscomb J.K., Driscoll C.T. & Weathers K.C., 2009, Effects of Air Pollution on Ecosystems and Biological Diversity in the Eastern United States. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1162(1): 99-135.
Mace B.L., Bell P.A. & Loomis R.J., 2004, Visibility and Natural Quiet in National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Environment and Behavior 36(1): 5-31.
Mabahwi, N. A. B., Leh, O. L. H. & Omar, D., 2014, Human Health and Wellbeing: Human Health Effect of Air Pollution. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 153: 221-229.
Muhar A., Arnberger A. & Brandenburg C., 2002, Methods for Visitor Monitoring in Recreational and Protected Areas: An Overview, [in:] Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas, Conference Proceeding ed. by A. Arbnerger, C. Brandenburg, A. Muhar, pp. 1-6.
Nagel A.C., Tsou M.H., Spitzberg B.H., An L., Gawron J.M., Gupta D.K., Yang J.A., Han S., Peddecord K.M., Lindsay S. & Sawyer M.H., 2013, The Complex Relationship of Realspace Events and Messages in Cyberspace: Case Study of Influenza and Pertussis Using Tweets. Journal of Medical Internet Research 15(10): e237.
Nepal S.K., 2000, Tourism in Protected Areas: The Nepalese Himalaya. Annals of Tourism Research 27(3): 661-681.
Pietilä M., Neuvonen M., Borodulin K., Korpela K., Sievänen T. & Tyrväinen L., 2015, Relationships between exposure to urban green spaces, physical activity and self-rated health. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism 10: 44-54.
Rapley C. & De Meyer K., 2014, Climate science reconsidered. Nature Climate Change 4: 745-746.
Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water Shumen, 2018, Regional Report on the state of the environment in 2018. (Retrieved from http://www.riosv-shumen.eu/index.php?homepage=2&subnavy=1&act=91) [in Bulgarian]
Rigolon A. & Flohr T.L., 2014, Access to parks for youth as an environmental justice issue: Access inequalities and possible solutions. Buildings 4(2): 69-94.
Rossi S.D., Pickering C.M. & Byrne J.A., 2016, Not in our park! Local community perceptions of recreational activities in peri-urban national parks. Australasian Journal of Environmental Management 23(3): 245-264.
Rughinis C. & Humă B., 2015, Who theorizes age? The “socio-demographic variables” device and age–period–cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research. Journal of Aging Studies 35: 144-159.
Sasahara K., Hirata Y., Toyoda M., Kitsuregawa M. & Aihara K., 2013, Quantifying Collective Attention from Tweet Stream. PLoS ONE 8(4): e61823.
Seale C., 2003, Media and health. SAGE Publications, London, 256 pp.
Shuib K.B., Hashim H. & Nasir N.A.M., 2015, Community Participation Strategies in Planning for Urban Parks. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 168: 311-320.
Szulczewska B., Giedych R., Borowski J., Kuchcik M., Sikorski P., Mazurkiewicz A. & Stanczyk T., 2014, How much green is needed for a vital neighbourhood? In search for empirical evidence. Land Use Policy 38: 330-345.
Vaughan K.B., Kaczynski A.T., Wilhelm Stanis S.A., Besenyi G.M., Bergstrom R. & Heinrich K.M., 2013, Exploring the distribution of park availability, features, and quality across Kansas City, Missouri by income and race/ethnicity: An environmental justice investigation. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 45(1): 28-38.
Zhang Y., Van den Berg A.E., Van Dijk T. & Weitkamp G., 2017, Quality over Quantity: Contribution of Urban Green Space to Neighborhood Satisfaction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14(5): 535.
How to Cite
Number of views and downloads: 28
Number of citations: 0