Eastern European Countryside https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC EEC presents the process of change in the legislative, organizational, economic and social areas as well as the predicted consequences of those changes. en-US eec@umk.pl (Monika Kwiecińska-Zdrenka) greg@umk.pl (Grzegorz Kopcewicz) Mon, 03 Feb 2014 11:15:19 +0100 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Looking for a S pecificity of Rural Youth. The Polish Case https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0003 In social consciousness a view is embedded that our rural and agrarian areas are our weakness which limits our development potential and social change. Whatever the reasons (mostly historical) for this view, the divide into rural and urban areas, Poland A and Poland B, is frequently referred to and just as frequently exaggerated, supporting thus various stereotypes and prejudices. Do they also concern the young generation?<br />Rural areas in Poland are subject to dynamic transformation. The image of rural areas and its reception across society is changing positively. The favourable balance between migration and a growing interest among young people in the countryside as a future place of residence can be used as an example. However, this does not mean that the problem of rural areas and regional differences in Poland has been resolved. Neither do the changes happen as rapidly as could have been expected, nor do they happen in parallel in terms of geography and social structure. Not all of them are positive. The large number of small farms (although land concentration was expected in agriculture) is disturbing. The succession to economically weak farmsteads (which shows that in the face of no employment and non-agricultural life prospects an economically non-viable farm seems – from an individual perspective – the best possible solution). This phenomenon gives rise to many questions. Here, we only want to discuss the questions concerning the young generation – whether their aspirations and life goals, educational decisions, places of residence can be conducive to change (inside and outside rural areas) or rather impede them? Krystyna Szafraniec Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0003 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Occupational Choices of Romanian Rural Youth https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0004 This paper tries to identify the main factors influencing the decisions related to occupational choices of rural youth from Cluj County, Romania, thus contributing to a better understanding of the problems and opportunities of Romanian rural communities. In order to achieve this, the results of two surveys are compared: the first one was carried out in 2007 and the second in 2011. The two surveys adopted the same methodology, thus allowing us to test the stability of the outcomes over a period of four years and highlight the main changes occurring in that period. In 2011 information was collected also regarding the current situation of young people belonging to the first generation, thus the cross-sectional analysis has been completed with a longitudinal analysis. Results show that the educational choices of rural youth from Cluj County were not essentially modified in the period 2007–2011, but there is a growing uncertainty regarding their future profession. Most of them want to work in the services sector, the preference for agriculture remaining low and there is a clear and persistent gender division among chosen professions. The main factors identified as having an influence on continuing education are: gender (more girls opting for continuing education than boys), school results and parents’ attitude towards education. Based on the conclusions of the analysis, some policy implications are also discussed. Kinga Kerekes, Bernadett Pakucs Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0004 Wed, 19 Sep 2012 00:00:00 +0200 Intergenerational Assistance on Family Farms in Slovenia: Expectations and Practices https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0005 The ageing in farm population in Slovenia is accompanied by a diminishing interest of the younger generation in farming. Hence, measures for early retirement of farmers and assistance to young farmers were introduced in 2004 and 2005. Some results of two ensuing studies are presented here: the survey Generations and Gender Relations on Slovenian Farms (2007) and ethnographic study on intergenerational solidarity (2009). The survey findings reveal that through intergenerational assistance farm population, especially the beneficiaries of both measures, shows specific characteristics compared to other observed groups (non-farmers): stronger reliance on their own family resources and weaker dependence on state resources. The survey findings are further upgraded by the ethnographic results, explaining more in-depth from a life-course perspective the complex dynamics and background of intergenerational assistance on family farms. Majda Černič Istenič, Duška Knežević Hočevar Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0005 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Local Initiatives for Rural Vitality and Social Inclusion: Some Experiences from Serbia https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0006 The purpose of this paper is to identify the main problems related to the sustainable development of rural communities, as well as the possible solutions to overcome them. This paper uses an analytical and synthetic approach, method of comparison and analogy, and descriptive analysis. The starting point of the research is actually a brief overview of the current situation in rural Serbia, while the central part of the paper presents an analysis concerning the development of the rural economy in the representative villages of Grabovica and Ribare in the Republic of Serbia. Research results are given in the form of specific guidelines for a new approach to local rural development and strengthening the role and responsibilities of local government in the development process. The main conclusion that follows from the results of the research is that continued and constant work is needed in order to empower local communities to take responsibility for their own development, as well as to support local initiatives to this end. Milica Vujicic, Lela Ristic, Nata Ciric Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0006 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Tradition and Modernity in the Romanian Rural Space. Case Study: the Arges Sub-Carpathian Foothills https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0007 This paper intends to demonstrate on the basis of a case study that rural people’s access to modern goods and services is not necessarily a relentless source of deculturalisation, because it sometimes allows a better management and valorisation of the main characteristics of the rural space. Despite socio-economic unrest and successive changes of political regimes that took place in Romania during the last century, the human communities within the Arges foothills have defended with dignity their traditional material and spiritual values, passing them down from generation to generation. In the medium and long-term, the valorisation of the Romanian rural space, in general, and of that belonging to the Arges foothills, in particular, will imply the creation of a balance between the valuable cultural potential and the quality of life of the inhabitants, who are the keepers of rural cultural heritage. At present, the best thing to do to pass on the traditions of this area is to proudly accept the affiliation to this geographical space. This is true not only for the permanent inhabitants of rural settlements, but mostly for those who have left the countryside to carry it in their minds and souls. In our opinion, this fact is a pre-requisite for preventing the loss of material and spiritual values of this cultural-historical space. Gabriela Manea, Elena Matei, Iuliana Vijulie, Marian Marin, Octavian Cocos, Adrian Tiscovschi Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0007 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Working in Regional Agro-food Networks – Strengthening Rural Development through Cooperation https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0008 <p>Regional agro-food networks have an impact on the development of rural regions. Networks give small and medium sized enterprises the opportunity to gain access to further markets (e.g. through offering a wider common product range), to conduct more effective marketing or to synergize the variety of skills and know-how of the network partners. Networks of the agricultural and food economy are also seen as a chance for rural regions because they can positively influence social and cultural lives as well as the natural and economic areas in regions.</p><p>We analysed regional networks of the agricultural and food economy, investigated the strengths and weaknesses in the structure of agro-food networks and developed options for action to strengthen the collaboration within the networks and their regional marketing.</p><p>In our paper we present the results of one case study in Eastern Germany. We show our findings of a strengths and weaknesses analysis and a constellation analysis. Therefore, success factors were identified and used to evaluate the networks qualitatively. In addition, we discuss how regional networks can support regional marketing and sustainable regional development.<br /><br /></p> Annemarie Burandt, Friederike Lang, Regina Schrader Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0008 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Determinants of Profitability of Polish Rural Micro-Enterprises at the Time of EU Accession https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0009 Rural micro-enterprises are an important factor in sustainable rural development in post-transitional Eastern Europe. This paper deals with determining the key factors influencing profitability in rural micro-enterprises in Poland. The research design was based on a questionnaire survey of 300 rural micro-enterprises in the food-processing sector in rich and poor Polish provinces. The analysis carried out in this study is centered around the Polish EU accession in May 2004. Similar to other related studies, our results show that EU accession was not perceived as a major change by rural Polish micro-entrepreneurs and that the EU related factors were not significant determinants of their profitability. However, our results also show that the success of the rural food processing micro-enterprise in Eastern Europe is most related to its owner/manager and enterprise characteristics. For the owner/manager the most significant determinants are his/her age and risk-taking as the main motive for establishing an enterprise. The enterprise characteristics that determine the profitability include enterprise location within a region with competitive situation, enterprise size (being a sole trader or family enterprise), ICT advancements in enterprise and the fact whether the enterprise has any certificates for its products. The results have significant implications for the researchers and policy-makers and can become a basis for preparing relevant enterprise support policies in post-transitional Eastern Europe. <br /><br /> Karel Janda, Gordon Rausser, Wadim Strielkowski Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0009 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Is Small Beautiful? The Debate on the Future of Small Individual Farms in Poland https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0010 The main concern of this article is to collect and discuss cases that are advanced for and against small agricultural farms at the international level in the EU and the national level in Poland and to make an assessment of these cases in the context of sustainable rural development. Cases concerning small farms and put forward by different actors reflect their visions of agriculture and rural development. Taking a closer look at those cases is interesting in the context of sustainability considerations, as there is a widespread programmatic demand for sustainable rural development, but at the same time visions for rural development may differ widely, and the question what exactly is meant to be sustainable often remains unanswered. Before the various arguments raised for and against small farms are discussed, some evidence from two Polish rural regions is presented. The empirical research was conducted in April and May 2012 in Eastern and Southern Poland in the context of my PhD-thesis. After presenting statements made by Polish smallholders, an assessment of the initially collected cases is made in the context of sustainable rural development. A comparison of cases made for and against small farms and findings from empirical research shows that small farms do in fact have the potential to contribute to sustainable rural development. Anna Szumelda Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0010 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Introduction – the 20th Anniversary of “Eastern European Countryside” https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0001 . Andrzej Kaleta Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0001 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 The State of Rural Sociology as Presented in Four Periodicals – Rural Sociology, Sociologia Ruralis, Journal of Rural Studies, Eastern European Countryside https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0002 This article is an analysis of differences and similarities between four English-language journals on rural sociology. The comparison covered topics discussed in about 600 articles published in the journals in the years 1995–2010 and the regional affiliation of their authors. In the comparison, all articles and texts on empirical research published in this period in Eastern European Countryside were considered. In total, 141 texts were published in this annual journal. Out of the three other journals (Rural Sociology, Sociologia Ruralis, Journal of Rural Studies) 50 articles for each of three periods: 1995–1996, 2002–2003, 2008–2009, were selected. <br />Results of the comparison show that the journals have strictly regional profiles, and that present rural sociology does not seem to be the science on social phenomena in world-wide rural areas. Rural sociology used in the four studied journals does not develop the knowledge that would be useful in solving problems of the rural population. In the three journals under study (Rural Sociology, Sociologia Ruralis, Journal of Rural Studies) almost exclusively sociology of rural areas in Western Europe and Northern America was developed, and their contributors were almost always authors from the two regions. The fourth journal – Eastern European Countryside – was concerned, adequately to its title, with rural phenomena in Central and Eastern Europe. Grzegorz Zabłocki Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0002 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Anton Štefánek – the Precursor of Slovakian Rural Sociology https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0015 Łukasz M.Dominiak Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0015 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Index. Our Authors and their Articles. Nos. 10/2004 – 19/2013 of Eastern European Countryside https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0016 Iwona Leśniewicz Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0016 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Life and Work in Rural Germany https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0011 Elwira Piszczek Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0011 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Regional Aspects of Social and Economic Restructuring in Eastern Europe https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0012 Magdalena Sternicka-Kowalska Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0012 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 The Polish Countryside in Statistics https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0013 Monika Kwiecińska-Zdrenka Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0013 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Central and Eastern European Countryside from an international perspective (IRSA Congress in Lisbon, 2012) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0014 Monika Kwiecińska-Zdrenka Copyright (c) https://apcz.umk.pl/EEC/article/view/eec-2013-0014 Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0200