The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies https://apcz.umk.pl/CJPS <p>Copernicus Journal of Political Studies (CJPS) jest anglojęzycznym czasopismem naukowym wydawanym w formule <em>open access</em> od 2012 roku. Publikujemy rezultaty prac badawczych przede wszystkim z zakresu nauk o polityce i bezpieczeństwie dotyczących Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej i obszaru postsowieckiego. Naszym celem jest udostępnianie wyników zarówno interdyscyplinarnych, jak i specjalistycznych badań i analiz odnoszących się do problematyki stosunków międzynarodowych, bezpieczeństwa międzynarodowego, geopolityki czy polityki wewnętrznej państw w szerokim kontekście.</p><p>Polub nas na <a href="https://www.facebook.com/The-Copernicus-Journal-of-Political-Studies-730218137050322">Facebooku!</a></p> Fundacja Copernicus na rzecz Rozwoju Badań Naukowych pl-PL The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 2299-4335 LOBBYING IN POLAND: SOME COMMENTS ON CURRENTLY BINDING LEGAL REGULATIONS https://apcz.umk.pl/CJPS/article/view/CJPS.2020.011 <p>One of the features of democracy is the constant battle for the protection or implementation of particular interests. This trend is inevitable and, according to many experts, also quite beneficial with regard to the efficiency of the functioning of the political system, as well as its social legitimization. Nevertheless, restrictions apply as there are as many ways of regulation, from a legal point of view, as there are countries in the world. Thus it ought to come as no surprise that lobbying exists in Poland, and in consequence we are observing attempts to establish a framework for it in legal terms. Some questions arise in this respect that require a serious response: what should be considered as lobbying? Is it actually legal in Poland? Does the legal framework allow for its controlling and monitoring? If, and possibly how, should such regulations influence the social reception of lobbying in Poland? These are but a few of the questions that this paper is aiming to provide answers to.</p> Rafał Willa Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 2 5 20 10.12775/CJPS.2020.011 IMPLEMENTING EU GLOBAL STRATEGY: CHALLENGES FOR EU DIPLOMACY https://apcz.umk.pl/CJPS/article/view/CJPS.2020.012 <p>The Treaty of Lisbon gave new institutional ideas regarding EU external actions which were the basis for taking further steps in strengthening the effectiveness of the EU as an international actor. The EU Global Strategy for Foreign and Security Policy – EUGS (2016) was prepared as a response to the need for a stronger Europe in times of crisis. The new strategic document together with its institutional framework places a question over EU diplomatic capability in its implementation. The aim of this paper is to analyze relations between the assumptions of the EUGS and EU diplomatic potential, with special emphasis on the European External Action Service. The author poses the following research questions: what are the institutional challenges in implementing the EU Global Strategy for Foreign and Security Policy? What are the capabilities of the EU diplomatic system in responding to global threats and challenges? What are the roles of the European External Action Service and member states in implementing EUGS priorities?</p> Paula Marcinkowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 2 21 31 10.12775/CJPS.2020.012 UKRAINE’S STRATEGIES OF EMPOWERING WOMEN IN PEACE-BUILDING: IMPLEMENTATION OF UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1325 ON WOMEN AND PEACE AND SECURITY https://apcz.umk.pl/CJPS/article/view/CJPS.2020.013 <p>In the second half of the 20th century the issue of rights and opportunities for women became actively discussed in the international politics; however, the peace and security sector did not immediately become gender-sensitive. On 31 October 2000 the UN Security Council adopted the resolution on Women and Peace and Security (S/RES/1325). The resolution reaffirms the important role of women in prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace negotiations, peace-building, peacekeeping and humanitarian response as well as in post-conflict reconstruction. It also highlights the importance of women’s equal participation and full involvement in maintenance and promotion of peace and security. UNSC Resolution 1325 urges all members to increase the participation of women and incorporate gender perspectives in UN peace and security efforts.</p><p>The article discusses the essential role of gender perspective in women’s empowerment strategies adopted in Ukraine that focus on preventing and counteracting armed conflicts, national security, and peace-building. As a UN member state, Ukraine had to adopt Resolution 1325 along with other resolutions of the UN Security Council that are included in Women, Peace and Security agenda. In 2016 the Ukrainian government approved the National Action Plan on Implementation of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325. What seems peculiar is that Ukraine adopted this document during an active military conflict.</p><p>The article examines the institutional aspects of implementation of the first National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security until the adoption of the second National Action Plan on 28 October 2020. In particular, the author analyses the implementation of UNSC Resolution 1325 in Ukraine at the megalevel (international institutions) and the macrolevel (national approval institutions of equal rights and opportunities).</p> Oksana Yarosh Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 2 33 48 10.12775/CJPS.2020.013 PRIVILEGED, PROBLEMATIC OR PROBLEM-SOLVING PARTNERSHIP: THE IMAGE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IN CONTEMPORARY TURKEY https://apcz.umk.pl/CJPS/article/view/CJPS.2020.014 <p>This paper aims to analyze the role of EU-Turkey relations in Turkish public debate since 2002, when the Justice and Development Party took power. The Republic of Turkey filed an application to accede to the European Economic Community (the predecessor of the European Union) in 1987; however, the accession negotiations proceeded extremely slowly until the entire process came to an impasse in 2018. Although currently Turkey and the European Union share many common problems (e.g. migration crisis, threat of terrorism, energy security), their cooperation is very limited and thus often ineffective. The author argues that recent developments in Turkey have been shaped by President Erdoğan’s anti-Western rhetoric and are dominated by domestic factors (i.e. inward oriented). In order to present Turkey’s attitudes towards the EU, the source analysis focused on identifying basic assumptions and objectives of Turkish foreign policy The analysis revealed that here are three possible scenarios for future partnership between Turkey and the EU: optimistic, pessimistic, and realistic.</p> Jan Niemiec Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 2 49 71 10.12775/CJPS.2020.014 DEMOCRACY IN CRISIS https://apcz.umk.pl/CJPS/article/view/CJPS.2020.015 <p>This paper takes a look at the current state of Western democracy and the crises looming within it. Financialization of the democratic system, evident in the far-reaching influence of well-funded interest groups; emergence of the new media platforms that can sway public opinion almost instantly; the growing influence of digital technology giants due to the vast amount of user data that they possess; the overall influence of the Internet as an abstract entity; the failure of the education system unable to cope with modern day challenges – these are some of the factors that have significantly eroded the Western democracies for the past several decades. The text uses both discourse and content analysis in a complementary way. It is the author’s opinion that the factors listed in this paper indicate that Western democratic regimes are likely to transform into some forms of oligarchy, authoritarianism or, most worryingly, ultra-modern manifestations of totalitarianism aided by the array of modern technologies and methods of mass legitimization.</p> Irakli Chedia Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 2 73 83 10.12775/CJPS.2020.015 INTERTEXTUALITY AND THE DEPICTION OF IDEOLOGICAL CONFLICTS. THE CASE OF V FOR VENDETTA https://apcz.umk.pl/CJPS/article/view/CJPS.2020.016 <p>Intertextuality seems to be Alan Moore’s trademark. In his most famous comic books and graphic novels, such as <em>V for Vendetta</em>, <em>Watchmen</em>, <em>Lost Girls</em> or <em>The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen</em>, he often refers to other texts of high and low culture. Therefore, a certain level of cultural competence is required to decode various messages hidden by the British writer. In <em>V for Vendetta</em> intertextuality is employed to convey certain political and ideological messages in a more subtle and indirect way. Through various allusions and quotations, Moore presents his views on the condition of the depicted society as well as on the political clash between a fascist state and its anarchist enemy. Intertextual references are also included in the graphics of the comic book. It is the aim of this paper to discuss if, how and to what extent intertextuality can influence the complexity of the graphic novel’s message and be used to indirectly convey particular political and social ideas.</p> Wojciech Lewandowski Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 2 85 100 10.12775/CJPS.2020.016 PERSONAL PROTECTION OF PEOPLE DURING A PANDEMIC https://apcz.umk.pl/CJPS/article/view/CJPS.2020.017 <p>The article focuses on the general principles regarding personal protection of people during a pandemic. The author indicates the difference between the concepts of an epidemic and a pandemic, characterizes civil protection, and specifies classification and possibilities of incorporating personal means of protection against biological infection. The text also highlights measures that contribute to protection of health and life of civilians as well as personal means of protection in the armed forces.</p>The publication is based on the analysis of available literature on the subject. In the research process, the author used his many years of experience in the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland (the chemical troops), including data gathered from simulation of conduct in CBRN (<em>Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear</em>) contaminated environment. Bogdan Michailiuk Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 2 101 122 10.12775/CJPS.2020.017 THE CONCEPT OF POPULISM: A POLITICAL ASPECT OF DEMOCRATIC SYSTEMS https://apcz.umk.pl/CJPS/article/view/CJPS.2020.018 <p>The article focuses on populism, a phenomenon topical in the socio-political life of many countries. While it has a significant influence on the politics of countries with relatively little experience of functioning democratic institutions, populism is quite clearly visible also in the modern political space of old democracies. There is a distinct link between exacerbation of socio-economic problems and increasing attractiveness of populism. An important factor contributing to the emergence and growth of populist influences is the inability of political establishments, including fully democratic ones, to respond effectively to changes and new challenges.</p> Iryna Kiyanka Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 2 123 130 10.12775/CJPS.2020.018 THE ROLE OF CITIES IN AN INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK: HISTORICAL CONTEXT https://apcz.umk.pl/CJPS/article/view/CJPS.2020.019 <p>The paper is devoted to a consideration of the distinguishing characteristics of a city as a powerful actor within the international legal framework that has been formed over decades and centuries of world history. The development of cities, their economic growth and hierarchization of social structures has led towards the division of labor, the nature of urban leadership provoking political revolution, and the formation of city states as well as the mutual impact between a state and a city. Thereafter, the problem of their loss of autonomy and independence because of their inability to cope with problems of a transnational nature dominated by threats, and how demographic changes are dealt with are a vital part of this work.</p> Anastassia Havrysh Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 2 131 141 10.12775/CJPS.2020.019 THINK TANKS IN ALBANIA: A CASE OF A FLAWED POWER-KNOWLEDGE NEXUS https://apcz.umk.pl/CJPS/article/view/CJPS.2020.020 <p>Think tanks are widely considered to be an important part of political life in mature democracies (McGann, 2019). The aim of the article is to present a preliminary characterisation of the institutional landscape of think tanks in Albania, based on the results of a qualitative and quantitative study conducted at the turn of 2017. The paper starts with presenting the specific features of the Albanian think tank sector and then proceeds to identify two major, yet interlinked, challenges facing Albanian think tanks, namely: (i) the lack of any internal political and institutional market for their research products, which is evidenced by their negligible impact on the policymaking process; (ii) the dependence on financing from external donors, which seriously constricts the autonomy of Albanian think tanks in defining their research agenda. The authors propose that this analysis of Albanian think tanks will aid in understanding how the Albanian political system functions as a whole.<strong> </strong></p> Renata Włoch Nevila Xhindi Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 2 143 160 10.12775/CJPS.2020.020