The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 2021-10-22T11:55:28+02:00 Natalia Olszanecka Open Journal Systems <p>Copernicus Journal of Political Studies (CJPS) jest anglojęzycznym czasopismem naukowym wydawanym w formule <em>open access</em> od 2012 roku. Publikujemy rezultaty prac badawczych przede wszystkim z zakresu nauk o polityce i bezpieczeństwie dotyczących Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej i obszaru postsowieckiego. Naszym celem jest udostępnianie wyników zarówno interdyscyplinarnych, jak i specjalistycznych badań i analiz odnoszących się do problematyki stosunków międzynarodowych, bezpieczeństwa międzynarodowego, geopolityki czy polityki wewnętrznej państw w szerokim kontekście.</p><p>Polub nas na <a href="">Facebooku!</a></p> The Digitalization of Public Diplomacy, Ilan Manor, Springer International Publishing, 2019 2021-03-02T11:35:52+01:00 Sylwia Głuch recenzja 2020-08-15T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies COUNTERING HYBRID THREATS: RESILIENCE IN THE EU AND NATO’S STRATEGIES 2021-03-11T13:34:43+01:00 Andrzej Jacuch <p>The objective of this paper is to identify, analyze and assess NATO’s and the EU’s responses to hybrid threats targeting Europe, in particular the Baltics, the Visegrád Groupand the Balkancountries. It considers measures, regulations, structures and capabilities of both organizations. The main hypothesis stipulates that strengthening resilience through civil preparedness is the basis of both NATO and EU strategies to counter hybrid threats, and that cybersecurity, strategic communication and military mobility are key areas the two organizations are working on.</p><p>Is resilient cyberspace critical for our daily life, economy, and national security? Should we enhance strategic communications to prevent disinformation? How to prepare our civil sectors so that they continue providing essential services to population and supporting military operations in a crisis? Europe is facing the greatest security challenges since the end of the Cold War. The seizure of Crimea, destabilization of Eastern Ukraine, disinformation campaigns, cyber-attacks, terrorism, crisis in the Middle East, poverty, and global financial volatility create new challenges and<em> </em>involve Western countries in a hybrid war, fought predominantly on cyber and information fronts with the extensive use of social media. Meanwhile, globalization has made the security environment more demanding, raising an urgent question: How to prepare for a crisis?</p> 2020-08-15T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies ENERGY SECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION 2021-03-02T11:41:11+01:00 Iryna Pavlenko <p>The aim of the article is to present a practical and methodological approach to assessing the energy security of European countries, with particular focus on states with coal-dependent energy systems and on finding balance between ensuring energy security, diversification of energy resources and environmental protection. As energy security means technically reliable, stable, cost-effective and environmentally balanced supply of energy resources to satisfy the needs of the economy and the population, the author proposes an indicator that takes into consideration different components, and can be a helpful tool in designing energy policies. The article also discusses using the energy potential of closed coal mines.</p> 2020-08-15T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies DON’T MAKE A RIVAL OUT OF THE DRAGON: RETHINKING THE EU-CHINA POLICY 2020-10-08T10:55:33+02:00 Tomasz Morozowski <p>As expressed in the EU-China 2020 Strategic Agenda for Cooperation adopted in 2013, the European Union and the People’s Republic of China are committed to a comprehensive strategic partnership. The new nature of Chinese foreign policy under the leadership of Xi Jinping has caused new problems in European-Chinese relationships. The rise of China to a position of global superpower, symbolized by the Belt and Road Initiative, has changed the conditions for EU-China relations and created a necessity for Europe to revise its approach or even to profoundly change the way it perceives relations with Beijing.</p><p>The goal of this article is to discuss EU policy towards China between 2013 and 2019 in the context of these new conditions and the changing perception of China in Europe. The rethinking process on the side of the EU was symbolized by describing China as a <em>systemic rival</em> in the strategic outlook presented by the European Commission in March 2019. The main research question is: how did public debate in Europe around the term <em>systemic rival,</em> and the change in perception of China it caused, correspond with the actual state of EU-China relationships on the level of political practice? The hypothesis, that the commotion caused by the use of the term <em>systemic rival</em> created a distorted impression of the current state of EU-China relations will be tested by analyzing specific cases of the operationalization of EU policy such as investment screening frameworks, European industrial policy and the major political EU-China visits and summits in 2019.</p> 2020-08-15T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies NORMATIVE POWERS IN MARITIME AFFAIRS: INDIA-EU COOPERATION IN THE INDIAN OCEAN REGION 2021-03-02T11:40:42+01:00 Tomasz Łukaszuk <p>The aim of the article is to explore how the European Union (EU) and India have developed their activities in maritime affairs, trying to boost their cooperation. The challenge for both the EU and India has been to acknowledge each other’s role sin maritime affairs in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) as a facilitator of good practices in maritime governance as well as an important ally in securing the Strategic Lanes of Communication. The main hypothesis of the article is that both the EU and India are normative powers in maritime affairs and have not yet created synergy in their activities. The growing feeling of disappointment among many countries in Asia and Europe with the Belt and Road Initiative might be used to introduce a joint EU-India program covering the same strategic intercontinental maritime lanes similar to the recent India-Japan initiative of the Asia-Africa Growth Corridor. The convergence of strategic interests of the EU and India can be materialized in the most democratic and beneficial way for both.</p> 2020-08-15T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies SYRIA: THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION’S RETURN TO THE MIDDLE EAST 2019-11-23T13:51:52+01:00 Mirosław Minkina <p><span lang="EN-GB">Over the years, the Middle East has played a diverse role in Soviet and later Russian foreign policy. During the period of rivalry between the USSR and the US, it was an important area of confrontation. After its end, the Russian Federation became immersed in crisis and lost interest in the region. The Middle East again appeared in the Kremlin’s geostrategic thinking after the Arab Spring which the Russian authorities perceived as fuelled and directed by the West, especially the US. The consequences of these social upheavals in the form of the overthrow of the Libyan leader or the explicit aspirations of the West to remove Bashar al-Assad from power, led Vladimir Putin to take action. This article is an attempt to interpret Russian actions in Syria, including its military involvement, through the prism of the Kremlin’s neo-superpower policy.</span></p> 2021-10-22T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies DISCURSIVE GOVERNANCE: ERDOĞAN’S POPULIST DISCOURSES AS A MODE OF POWER PRESERVATION 2021-03-02T11:39:05+01:00 Srđan Mladenov Jovanović Ajdin Đidić <p>Although he used to be praised by the West as a modernizer of Turkey, Erdoğan’s mode and discourse of governance have changed drastically over the last decade – he now employs severe counter-democratic measures and exclusionary, populist discourses. This article explores Erdoğan’s rule, focusing in particular on the discourses he promotes in order to keep power and attain increasing electoral support. In an analysis based on the theoretical foundations of Critical Discourse Analysis, Erdoğan’s reign is characterized by specific, exclusionary discourses, from creating the discursive Other established as the enemy and engaging in conspiracy discourses, to openly chastising and castigating his political opponents, while his popularity continues to increase.</p> 2020-08-15T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies STRATEGIC THINKING: SOCIO-CULTURAL FRAMES AND CONTEXTS 2021-03-02T11:37:56+01:00 Stanisław Jarmoszko <p>The aim of the article is to reconceptualize the term/phenomenon “strategic thinking”. First of all, it discusses socio-cultural roots and contexts of strategic thinking. Although strategic thinking rests on the neuro-psychical thinking mechanisms of an individual, it is a peculiar process as it is a competence mastered through practical and educational activities (in a specific socio-cultural context), which requires an appropriate conceptual-intellectual training. The article is of the viewpoint-conceptual nature. On the basis of the review and critical analysis of the theoretical interpretations of strategic thinking, the author of this article presents his own system of defining, structuring or enumerating the basic socio-cultural frames. The main result is the conceptualization of strategic thinking culture. Owing to the increasing worldwide significance of strategic thinking – in various areas of human activity – the considerations included in the article may considerably contribute to the progress of the universal theory of strategy. The content can facilitate the development of human perception of reality and their effective performance within the reality.</p> 2020-08-15T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies COMMUNICATION IN MASS COOPERATION AS A VUCA FACTOR IN MODERN SOCIO-ECONOMIC SHOCKS 2021-03-02T11:32:48+01:00 Sergii Fedoniuk <p>Analyzing the prerequisites for the VUCA (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, and Ambiguity) phenomenon – characteristic of the modern world, which is more variable and multilateral than before – the text discusses VUCA with regard to open cooperation in the context of socio-economic interactions.</p><p>Instability, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity of the world are caused mainly by the expansion of the model of open (mass) cooperation between the participants of public communication. The system of global communication has transformed from a predominantly one-vector model with a targeted audience to an interactive mass system in which not only the specialized subjects of the communication process but also all participants reflect all the components of the VUCA concept. This combination of communicators has characteristics similar to a crowd formed under the influence of external provocation.</p><p>The consequences of the impact of VUCA communication factors are spontaneous social and economic upheavals that have emerged with the rapid development of new technologies and communication models (North Africa and the Middle East in 2010–2011, Ukraine in 2013–2014). Over time, this trend has intensified, and the consequences are now manifested on a global scale (as in the case of socio-economic consequences of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic).</p><p>VUCA communication rests on the principles of mass cooperation, thus appropriate approaches and methods should be based on management in the VUCA world.</p> 2020-08-15T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE ASSASSINATION OF QASEM SOLEIMANI: A POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE 2020-10-08T10:55:35+02:00 Ahmet Berk Binkaya abstract 2020-08-15T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2020 The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies