Cierpienie, wolność i sens. Viktor Frankl i Martin Heidegger

Francesco Brencio

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/SPI.2015.011

Abstrakt


Celem powyższego artykułu jest ukazanie związków pomiędzy logoterapią Viktora Frankla a Daseinsanalyse Martina Heideggera. Odpowiednio w ramach analizy egzystencjalnej i fenomenologii wykazuję bliskość Franklowskiego i Heideggerowskiego podejścia do cierpienia. Wychodząc z rozpowszechnionego przekonania, głoszącego, że w cierpieniu wolność jest zawsze zagrożona, a przy tym doświadczanej wówczas w sposób ograniczony, zarówno Frankl, jak i Heidegger, rozwinęli odmienne podejścia w kwestii postrzegania znaczenia cierpienia i sensu życia w sytuacjach, w których przytrafiają się nam rozmaite nieszczęśliwe zdarzenia. Cierpienie i wolność są ze sobą wzajemnie powiązane, co wynika z pierwotnej konstytucji człowieka: jednostka ludzka zasadniczo zawsze znajduje się w potrzebie, ponieważ zawsze bywa narażona na niebezpieczeństwo zagubienia i niemożność powrotu do siebie. Zarówno Frankl poprzez logoterapię, jak i Heidegger poprzez hermeneutyczną fenomenologię, włożyli znaczący wkład w psychiatrię i psychologię, interpretując jednostkę ludzką, jej skończoność, cierpienie i radykalną wolność.


Słowa kluczowe


Victor Frankl; Martin Heidegger; logoterapia; Daseinsanalyse; hermeneutyka; fenomenologia; analiza egzystencjalna; wolność

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