Destroying the National-Spiritual Values of Ukrainians during the Anti-Religious Offensive of the Soviet Totalitarian State in the 1960s and 1970s

Nadia Kindrachuk

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/HiP.2016.030

Abstrakt


The article deals with the church and religious life of Ukrainians in the context of national and political processes during the 1960s and 1970s. The author characterizes the anti-religious policy of the Soviet government, shows its directions, forms, and methods, studies the attitude of Ukraine’s title nation representatives to religious persecution and to manipulation of religious consciousness by the communist leadership, and highlights comprehensive atheistic activities and the elimination of the ways for reviving religiosity among people. The author reveals the essence, the process of creating and artificially enforcing the new Soviet ritualism in Ukrainians’ lives. This ritualism has become a convenient tool for popularizing communist ideology in the Ukrainian SSR, destroying historical memory and undermining the national identity of the Ukrainian people. The new Soviet ritualism was also a means for implementing the policy of denationalizing Ukrainians, beginning with the age-old religious oppression of Ukrainian customs, traditions, and rituals. The model of state-church policy of the Soviet power in the described period was based on the use of a variety of forms and methods of struggle against religion, including: a comprehensive control over clergy activities, destruction of religious sites and sacred objects, as well as administrative, moral, and political pressure on believers. Displacing religion, the Soviet totalitarian state destroyed not only native religious customs of the Ukrainian people, but also violated the principles of the centuries-old traditional culture and undermined the national fortitude of Ukrainians.


Słowa kluczowe


Ukrainian national-spiritual values; Ukrainians’ state-church relations; anti-religious campaign; opposition; religious oppression; atheistic propaganda; totalitarian state

Pełny tekst:

PDF (English)

Bibliografia


Andrukhiv, I. O. (2006). The Policy of the Soviet Power in Religion and Religious Life in the Precarpathian Region in the 1940s and 1980s: Historical and Legal Analysis. Uzhgorod: Publishing House of the Uzhgorod National University.

Andrukhiv, I. O., Kalyuzhny, R. A., Shevchenko, A. Ye. (2011). The Policy of the Soviet Power in the Sphere of Religion in Western Ukraine in the early 1960s. Law Bulletin. Kiev: Publishing House of the Kiev National Aviation University, 3, 19–23.

Baran, V., Danylenko, V. (1999). Ukraine during the Systemic Crisis (1946–1980s). Kiev: Alternatyvy.

Bondarchuk, P., Danylenko, V. (2012). Specificity of the Religious Situation in the Ukrainian SSR (the middle 1950s – the early 1960s). Scientific Bulletin of Vasyl Sukhomlynsky Mykolayiv National University. Mykolayiv: Publishing House of the Vasyl Sukhomlynsky Mykolayiv National University, 3.33, 158–171.

Danylenko, V. M. (eds.). (2013). Political Protests and Nonconformism in Ukraine (1960–1990): Documents and Materials. Kiev: Smoloskyp.

Information of the Departments of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, Reports of Regional Committees of the Communist Party of Ukraine, the Commissioner Council for the Russian Orthodox Church at the Minister Council of the USSR on the Ukrainian SSR, the Commissioner Council for Religious Affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Ukrainian SSR on Churches, Religious Holidays, Sectarian Religious Organizations etc. (1967). Fund 1.

Description 24. Case 4494. The Central State Archive of Public Organizations of Ukraine. Kyiv.

Kryvchyk, G., Shcherbakov, A., Yavorski, Yu. (2003). Introducing New Festivals and Ceremonies in the Ukrainian Village during the 1960s and 1980s: Achievements and Distortions.

Scientific Notes of Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky Vinnytsia State Pedagogical University: Collected Scientific Papers in History. Vinnytsia: Publishing House of the Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky Vinnytsia State Pedagogical University, VI, 86–93.

Marchuk, V. V. (2004). Church, Spirituality, Nation. The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in Public Life of Ukraine in the XXth Century. Ivano-Frankivsk: Plai.

Marynchenko, G. M. (2013). Anti-religious Propaganda by Means of Film and Radio during the Khrushchev’s “Thaw” (Based on Materials on the Southern Regions of the Ukrainian SSR). Scientific Bulletin of Vasyl Sukhomlynsky Nikolaev National University. Nikolaev: Publishing House of the Vasyl Sukhomlynsky Nikolaev National University, 3.35, 142–146.

Mykhalchuk, O. (2008). The Attitude of Soviet Authorities to the Orthodox Church during the 1960s and 1980s. Actual Issues of Ukrainian State-Building: Collected Materials of the Regional Scientific Conference (Lutsk, November 16–17, 2007). Lutsk: Publishing House of the Lutsk National Technical University, 141–149.

Onufriychuk, K. (2015). Historiography of Studying Ukrainian Urban Marriage Ceremony (1950s–1980s). Folk Art and Ethnology. Kiev: Publishing House of the Maksym Rylsky Institute of Art Studies, Folklore and Ethnology at the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2, 93–103.

Pashchenko, V. O. (2001). The Orthodoxy in the Modern History of Ukraine. Poltava: Publishing House of the Vladimir Korolenko Poltava National Pedagogical University.

Proceedings No 26 of the Meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party Presidium October 9, 1962. (1962) Fund 1. Description 6. Case 3421. Kyiv: The Central State Archive of Public Organizations of Ukraine.

Reports of Regional Committees of the Communist Party of Ukraine “On Facts of Irresponsibility in Radiobroadcasting”. (1969). Fund 1. Description 70. Case 242. Kyiv: The Central State Archive of Public Organizations of Ukraine.

Reports of Regional Committees of the Communist Party of Ukraine on Scientific Atheistic Propaganda. (1967). Fund 1. Description 70. Case 2387. Kyiv: The Central State Archive of Public Organizations of Ukraine.

Reports of Regional Committees of the Communist Party of Ukraine on Status and Prospects of Cultural Workers Training in Culture Colleges and Process of Club Building. Reports of the Commissioner Council for the Russian Orthodox Church at the Minister Council of the USSR on the Ukrainian SSR on Enrolling at Theological Seminaries, Celebrating Religious Holidays etc. January 4, 1965 – December 22, 1965. (1965). Fund 1.

Description 70. Case 2570. Kyiv: The Central State Archive of Public Organizations of Ukraine.

Slobodianiuk, P. (2000). The Ukrainian Church: the History of Ruin and Revival. Khmelnytsky:[n.p.].

State Political Publishing House of the Ukrainian SSR. (1962). The Communist Party of the USSR and the Soviet State on Religion and Atheistic Propaganda: Collected Documents and Materials. Kiev: State Political Publishing House of the Ukrainian SSR.

The Issues of Scientific and Atheistic Propaganda. The Issues of Religion, Churches and Prayer Houses. The Issues of the Commissioner Council for Religious Affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Ukrainian SSR. (1963). Fund 1. Description 24. Case 2741. Kyiv: The Central State Archive of Public Organizations of Ukraine.

The Register of Believers Complaints and Applications 1964–1965. (1965). Fund 4648. Description 1. Case 443. The Central State Archive of Supreme Bodies of Power and Government of Ukraine. Kyiv.

Tievikova, O. (2007). Religious Life in Ukraine in 1953–1964: Periodization of Historiographical Sources. History of Religions in Ukraine: Research Yearbook. Lviv: Logos I, 860–868.

Vovk, V. M. (2007). Life and Leisure of Urban Ukrainians during the 1950s and 1980s. Pereyaslav Khmelnytsky: Publishing House of the Grygorii Skovoroda Pereyaslav- Khmelnytsky State Pedagogical University.








ISSN: 1899-5160
eISSN: 2391-7652

Partnerzy platformy czasopism