Poverty, segregation and social exclusion of Roma communities in Slovakia

Alena Rochovská, Jurina Rusnáková

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bog-2018-0039

Abstract


This paper examines the issue of poverty and social exclusion of Roma in Slovakia. It highlights the problem of poverty among Roma communities, which together with segregation leads to absolute poverty and social exclusion. Based on ethnographic research the paper examines conditions in which inhabitants of segregated Roma communities sustain their livelihoods. In the qualitative part of our research we ask how inhabitants of segregated settlements organize and manage their livelihood and what strategies and practices they use to ensure social reproduction. Further, we assess the articulations between exclusion and social networks and other spheres of assets, including formal and informal labour, state benefits and the use of material assets. We argue that spatial segregation has an enormous impact on poverty.


Keywords


Roma population, Slovakia, poverty, social exclusion, segregation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abrahamson, P., 1995: Social exclusion in Europe: Old Wine in New Bottles? In: Druzhoslovne Razprave, XI(l9- 20): 19-136.

Atkinson, R., 2000: Combating Social Exclusion in Europe: The New Urban Policy Challenge. In: Urban Studies, 37(5–6): 1037–1055.

Barany, Z., 2000: Politics and the Roma in state-socialist Eastern Europe. In: Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 33(4): 421–437.

Berghman, J., 1995: Social Exclusion in Europe: Policy Context and Analytical Framework. In: Room, G. editor, Beyond the Threshold: the Measurement and Analysis of Social Exclusion, Bristol: Policy Press: 19–28.

Bleha, B., Vaňo, B. and Bačík, V., 2014: Demographic Atlas of Slovak Republic. Bratislava: Geografika.

Bridger, S. and Pine, F., 1998: Surviving Post-Socialism: Local Strategiesand Regional Responses in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. London: Routledge.

Brown, D. and Kulcsar, L., 2001: Household economic behaviour in Post socialist Rural Hungary. In: Rural Sociology, 66(2): 157-180.Burawoy, M., Krotov, P. and Lytkina, T., 2000: Involution anddestitution in capitalist Russia. In: Etnography, 1(1), SAGE Publications, London: 43-65.

Čerešníková, M., Rosinský, R., Samko, M. and Vanková, K., 2017:Barriers. Nitra: UKF.

Džambazovič, R., 2007: Spatial Aspects of Poverty and Social Exclusion. In: Sociológia, 39(5): 432-458.

Džambazovič, R. and Gerbery, D., 2005: From poverty to social exclusion. In: Sociológia, 37(2) 143-176.

Filadelfiová, J. and Gerbery, D., 2012: Report on the living conditions of Roma households in Slovakia. Bratislava: UNDP.

Filadelfiová, J., Gerbery, D. and Škobla, D., 2006: Report on the living conditions of Roma households in Slovakia. Bratislava. Bratislava: UNDP.

Filčák, R. and Škobla, D., 2013: Another Brick in the Wall: Ghettos, Spatial Segregation and the Roma Ethnic Minority in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Duxbury N. editor, Rethinking Urban Inclusion: spaces, mobilizations, interventions, Coimbra: Centro de Estudos Sociais, Universidade de Coimbra: 413-428.

Goliaš, P., 2017: Regional Differences in the Slovak Republic - Overview of Important Statistics. Bratislava: INEKO.

Horňák, M. and Rochovská, A., 2014: further into the town – transport exclusion of rural settlements residents in the gemer region in: geographia cassoviensis, viii(2): 141-149

Huttová J., Gyárfášová O. and Sekulová M., 2012: Segregation or inclusion of Roma in education: Choice for schools? Bratislava:Open Society Foundation.

Jordan, P., 1996: Post-communist southeastern Europe as a source of ethnic conflict. In: Frantz, K. and Sauder, R. editors, Ethnic persistence and change in Europe and America: Traces in land scape and society, Innsbruck: The University of Innsbruck: 93-131.

Jordan P., 2002: Die ethnische Struktur des mittleren und östlichen Europas (anhand der Karten des Atlasses Ost- und Südosteuropa). In: KRAAS F. and STADELBAUER J. editors, Nationalitäten und Minderheiten in Mittel - und Osteuropa (= Ethnos, 60), Wien: 24- 50.

Klein, V., 2012: Effectiveness of the zero-year elementary school - research findings. In: Current events, perspectives and developmental trends in social, educational and health work with marginalized groups: a collection of abstracts from the international scientific conference InteRRa18 and the 38th meeting of the Movement of cooperating schools R, which took place on 29 and 30 November 2012 in Ruzomberok, Ružomberok: Verbum: 49.

KOL. AUTOROV, 1999: Roma in the Czech Republic (1945-1998). In: Social policy papers, Praha: Socioklub.

KOL. AUTOROV, 2002: Roma Poverty and Related Social Welfare in the Slovak Republic. Bratislava: Svetová banka, Foundation S.P.A.C.E., Ineko.

Kotvanová, A., Szép, A. and Šebesta, M., 2003: Governmental Policy and Roma 1948 - 2002. Bratislava: Slovak Institute of International Studies of the Office of the Slovak Republic Government.

Kráľovská, V., 2006: Health status of children and women living in the poor communities of the Slovak Republic. In: Kusá, Z. and Džambazovič, R., editors, Poverty in the Slovak Society and the Relation of the Slovak Society to Poverty, Bratislava: SAV: 152-160.

Kumanová, Z., Mann, A. B., Petrasová, A. and ŠimčákovÁ-Tóthová, M., 2006: Roma people. In: Methodical Guide to Multicultural Education, Bratislava: Milan Šimečka Foundation: 69-111.

KyuchukoV, H., SAMKO, M. and KALEJA, M., 2015: Roma parents asi educators of their children. In: Interculture Education, 26(5): 444-448.

Lehoczká, L., 2006: Cultural identity of the Roma: theoretical and empirical analysis of selected domains.Nitra: UKF.

Magyari, N. L, Magyari-Vincze, E., Popescu, L. and Rotariu, T., 2001: The social construction of Romanian poverty: The impact of ethnic and Gender Distinctions. In: Jean Emigh, R. and Szelényi, I. editors, Poverty, Ethnicity, and Gender in Eastern Europe During the Market Transition:126-156.

Mann, A. B., 1996: Social Change of the Roma in Slovakia Since 1989. In: Sudosteuropa Zeitschrift Fur Gegenwartsforschung, 45: 267-281.

Mann, A. B., 1992: Unknown Roma. From the life and culture of Gypsies - Roma in Slovakia. Bratislava: Ister science press.

Mareš, P., 1999: Sociology of inequality and poverty.Praha: SLON.

Mareš, P., 2000: Poverty, marginalization, social exclusion. In: Sociologický časopis, 36(3): 285-297.

Matlovičová, K., Matlovič, R., Mušinka, A. and Židová, A., 2012: The Roma population in Slovakia. Basic characteristics of the Roma population with emphasis on the spatial aspects of its differentiation. In: Penczes, J. and Radics, Z. editors, Roma popuation on the peripheries of the Visegrad countries. Spatial trends and social challenges, Debrecen: Didakt: 77-104.

Mušinka, A., Škobla, D., Hurrle, J., Matlovičová, K. and Kling, J., 2014: Atlas of Roma Communities in Slovakia 2013. Bratislava: UNDP.

Pahl, R. E. and Wallace, C., 1985: Household work strategies in aneconomic recession. In: Redclift, N. and Pavlovskaya, M., editors, Other transitions: multiple economies of Moscow households in the 1990s, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 94(2): 329-351.

Podolák, P., 2000: Geographical and demographic characteristics of the Roma population in Slovakia. In: Geografický časopis, 52(3): 269-284.

Rácová, A. and Samko, M., 2015: Structural patterns and functions of reduplicative constructions in Slovak Romani. In: Asian and African Studies, 24(2): 165 – 189.

Radičová, I., 2001a: Roma Poverty in relation to the Labor Market in the Slovak Republic. In: Sociology, Slovak Sociological Review, 33(5) 439-456.

Radičová, I., 2001b: Hic Sunt Romales. Bratislava: Nadácia S.P.A.C.E.

Radičová, I. et al., 2004: Atlas of Roma Communities in Slovakia 2004. Bratislava: Inštitút pre verejné otázky.

Rafael, V. et. al., 2011: Answers to questions of (de) segregation of pupils in the education system of Slovakia. Bratislava: Open Society Fundation.

Ringold, D., 2000: Roma and the Transition in Central and Eastern Europe: Trends and Challenges. Washington: The World Bank.

Rochovská, A., 2011: Life strategies - the theoretical resources. In: Rusnáková, J. editor, Livelihood strategies of the Roma population, Proceedings of scientific studies, Nitra: UKF: 5 – 40.

Rochovská, A. and Ciglanský, R., 2009: Is distance not critical? Case Study of the Quality of Housing in Roma Communities. In: Klein, V. and Fabianova, V., editors, Cultural contexts of social interaction and social communication in ethnically mixed local communities. Scientific studies, Nitra: UKF: 206-214.

Rochovská, A., Majo, J. and Káčerová, M., 2014: The current reality of relations in the Slovak countryside: Rural communities in threat, or how capitalism, transforms social relations in the village. In: Chorvát, T. editor, Local communities III. Reflection of the Social Development after 1918 on the Character and Structure of Local Communities in Slovakia, Banská Bystrica: Center of Science and Research UMB: 39-56.

Rosinský, R., 2009: Ethnic attitudes of teachers, students and pupils of primary school (with an accent on a Roma ethnic group). Nitra: UKF.

Rusnáková, J., 2007: Poverty as a lifestyle in marginalized Roma communities. In: Čambáliková, M. and Šedová, T., editors, Exclusion and Social Situation in Slovakia, Bratislava: Sládkovičovo College, VEDA, vydavateľstvo SAV: 233-239.

Rusnáková, J., 2009: Objective and subjective characteristics of poverty in Roma communities. Dissertation. Nitra: UKF.

Rusnáková, J., 2011: Choice of livelihood strategies for the poor and socially excluded Roma population. In: Rusnáková, J. editor, Livelihood strategies of the Roma population, Proceedings of scientific studies, Nitra:UKF.

Rusnáková, J. and Pollák, P., 2012: Social work with marginalized Roma communities. In: Oláh, M. editor, Methods of Social Work in Practice, Prešov: VŠZaSP sv. Alžbety: 250-285.

Rusnáková, J., Šramková, M., Čerešníková, M., Rosinský, R., Samko, M. and Rochovská, A., 2015: Subjective perception of coping by destitute Roma communities in Slovakia and the importance of education as a strategy of pulling them out of poverty. In: Procedia Journal of Social and Behavioral Science, 174: 2721–2726.

Ružička, M., 2012: Continuity or rupture? Roma/Gypsy communities in rural and urban environments under post-socialism. In: Journal of Rural Studies, 28(2): 81-88.

Seewann, G., 1994: Die nationalen Minderheiten in Ungarn: Alte and neue Probleme in der jungen Demokratie. In: Brunner, G. and Lemberg, H. editors, Volksgruppen in Ostmittel and Sudosteuropa, Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft:133 -161.

Sigona, N., 2005: Locating ‘The Gypsy Problem’. The Roma in Italy: Stereotyping, Labelling and ‘Nomad Camps’. In: Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(4): 741-756.

Sirovátka, T., 2003: Exclusion of Roma in the labor market and chances for their inclusion. In: Social Studies, 3(10): 11-34.

Sirovátka, T. et al., 2004: Social exclusion and social inclusion of minorities and marginalized groups. Brno: Georgetown, Masarykova Univerzita, Faculty of Social studies.

Smith, A., Rochovská, A., 2007: Domesticating neo-liberalism: Everyday lives and the geographies of post-socialist transformations. In: Geoforum, 38(6): 1163-1178.

Smith, A., Stenning, A., 2006: Beyond household economies: articulations and spaces of economic practice in postsocialism. In: Progress in Human Geography, 30(2): 190-213.

Stenning, A., Smith, A., Rochovská, A. and Światek, D., 2010: Domesticating neo-liberalism. Spaces of economic practice and social reproduction in post-socialist cities. Chichester: Wiley- Blackwell.

Toušek, L., 2006: Culture of poverty, underclass and social exclusion. In: Hirt, T., and Jakoubek, M., editors, “Roma” in social exclusion, Plzeň: Aleš ČeněkPublishing , s.r.o.: 288-321.

Vaňo, B. and Mészáros, J., 2004: Reproductive behavior of the population in low-standard municipalities. Bratislava: Infostat.

Vašečka, M., Jurásková, M. and Nicholson, T., 2002: Čačipen pal o Roma. A Global Report on Roma population in Slovakia. Bratislava: Institute for Public Affairs.

Vašečka, M. and Džambazovič, R., 2000: Socio-economic situation of Roma in Slovakia as potential migrants and asylum seekers in EU countries. In: Vašečka, I., editor, Social and economic situation of potential asylum seekers from the Slovak Republic, Bratislava: IOM: 17-62.








Print ISSN: 1732-4254
Online ISSN: 2083-8298

Partnerzy platformy czasopism